The characteristics of individual human beings are passed from one generation to the next in their chromosomes. Each of our parents gives us 23 chromosomes, making 46 in all. That means that we have two versions of each of our genes, but one is often dominant. We see the effect of the dominant gene, but the other (recessive) gene is still there and can be passed to our children.
The Law of Inheritance – Mendel’s Law, is significant in comprehending how characteristics or traits are genetically passed from one generation to the next. Heredity is the process through which a new individual acquires traits from its parents during the event of reproduction.
Every individual has 23 pairs of chromosomes, each of which comes from the father and the mother. As genes are present on chromosomes, we receive two copies of each gene from paternal and maternal side respectively and one pair of sex chromosomes from each parent to form 46 chromosomes on the whole.
Traits acquired through inheritance are determined by rules of heredity. These traits are coded in our DNA and hence can be passed to the offspring (eye color, hair color, height etc.). Thus for each trait, there are two versions in a child. During the cell division process, genetic information (DNA structure) containing chromosomes are transferred into the cell of the new individual, therefore, passing traits to the next generation.