Iron is a brittle metal and can easily crack. This is because it contains carbon. But iron can be used to make steel. Steel is a mixture of substances (an ‘alloy’). It contains less carbon than iron and is therefore a stronger, more flexible metal.

There are many types of steel alloy, made from combining different metals and substances. Steel alloys are widely used in buildings, cars, kitchen utensils and other mass produced products. Steel is also recyclable. During the steel making process, scrap iron and molten iron is added in varying quantities.

Steel production

• Molten iron is poured into a huge conical vessel called a ‘converter’ where it is mixed with scrap iron.

• A jet of pure oxygen is then blasted on to the liquid metal at great speed.

• The oxygen gets into the metal and burns the carbon until the right amount is left.

• Lime combines with impurities in the iron to make slag. This floats on top of the newly made steel.

• The converter is tipped and the steel and slag are poured into separate ladles.

A jet of pure oxygen burns carbon from molten iron to make steel.

Picture Credit : Google


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