Which parts of the body does the skeleton protect?

Most of our organs are protected by the skull and the body skeleton. Some of our most sensitive organs lie embedded in the powerful cranial bone of the skull—the brain, the eyes, and the hearing organs. The mouth cavity protects the only movable bone of the skull, the lower jaw. The body skeleton with the ribs fanning out of the backbone protects the area of the chest. Internal organs such as the heart, lung, liver, and spleen are protected behind the rib cage, and the backbone covers the vital spinal cord. 

How many bones does a human being have?

An adult has 206 bones, which together weigh about 9 kg. A baby has 350 bones. Many bones in a baby’s skeleton are not fully grown, such as those of the skull. Cartilages are present at these points, and turn into bone at a later point. Bones are made up of different materials, and provide strength and elasticity. The bone mass is covered by a periosteum (bone skin), which contains nerves, blood vessels, and bone-building cells. The bone marrow, which makes the red blood cells, is present inside long bones. The longest bone in our body is the thigh bone. 

Why do we have a skeleton and how do we move it?

The skeleton gives us our shape and keeps our body upright. Without the bony framework, we would probably have looked like a flabby jellyfish on land, because, after all, one-fifth of our body is water. We differentiate our skeleton into the skull, the body, and the limbs. The first two protect us against injuries from outside, and the limb skeleton primarily takes care of our movement. The bones of the skeleton are joined by ligaments. We move with the help of muscles. Muscles become stiff and ache after a vigorous workout. 

How is urine formed?

Urine is a waste product, which is formed in the kidneys after the purification of blood. Kidneys contain millions of very tiny canals, called nephrons, which filter out harmful substances as well as excess water from the blood to form primary urine. This liquid still contains some useful components that are reabsorbed into the body in the kidneys. The remaining fluid that can no longer be used flows through the ureters into the bladder. Once the bladder is full, we need to go to the toilet and relieve ourselves.


What causes diarrhoea?

Stress, an unhealthy way of life, bacteria, and viruses are the most important causes of intestinal problems. Bacteria and viruses reach the body via food or water and cause sickness, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Diarrhoea is caused because the body fights against these invaders and wants to get rid of them as quickly as possible. Sometimes, with diarrhoea, we have fever too, since an increase in the body temperature accelerates the healing processes of the body.