What is the role of ISRO in space technology?

The ISRO works to develop and apply space technology in various sectors of our economy.

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the Indian Navy continue to conduct important trials for the Gaganyaan mission. However, do you know what ISRO is?

Organisation

 The ISRO is India's space agency that was established on August 15, 1969.

Previously known as the Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR), it was envisioned by Vikram Sarabhai, who helped develop nuclear power in India and is considered one of the founding fathers of Indian space programme. ISRO is a major constituent of the Department of Space (DOS), Government of India.

The department executes the Indian Space Programme primarily through various centres or units within the ISRO.

Works

The ISRO works to develop and apply space technology in various sectors of our economy. It has established major space systems for communication, television broadcasting, and meteorological services.

ISRO's first satellite, Aryabhata, was launched by the Soviet Union on April 19, 1975. Meanwhile, Rohini, the first satellite to be placed in orbit by an Indian-made launch vehicle, was launched on July 18, 1980. It has developed satellite launch vehicles, PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) and GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle), to place the satellites in the required orbits.

These rockets have launched communications satellites and Earth-observation satellites as well as missions to the Moon and Mars - Chandrayaan-1, 2008; Chandrayaan-2, 2019; and Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also called Mangalyaan, 2013.

ISRO has launched several space systems, including the Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system for telecommunication, television broadcasting, meteorology, and disaster warning and the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites for resource monitoring and management. The first INSAT and IRS satellites were launched in 1988.

While ISRO's headquarters is in Bengaluru, the launch vehicles are built at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram. Launches take place at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre on Sriharikota Island, near Chennai.

ISRO's chief executive is a chairman, who is also chairman of the Indian government's Space Commission and the secretary of the Department of Space. Its current Chairman is S. Somnath.

Picture Credit : Google 

A test flight with a number of firsts

The 1960s were a rather exciting time if you were part of NASA. After U.S. President John F. Kennedy stated his goal of landing humans on the moon and returning them safely home before the end of the decade of the 1960s, work at NASA progressed at breakneck speed given the enormity of the task ahead of them.

There were a lot of successes along the way, and setbacks too that proved to be equally important in terms of the overall learning. The Apollo-Saturn (AS) 201 mission in the mid 1960s was one such test flight that had a number of firsts, but also experienced malfunctions.

"All-up" philosophy

Coming at the height of Project Gemini, the AS-201 served as a crucial milestone in our march towards the moon. It used the "all-up" philosophy, according to which all components of a system were tested in a single first flight.

A suborbital test flight, its goals included demonstrating the Saturn IB's capabilities, the operation of Apollo Service Module's (SM) main engine, and determining the effectiveness of the Command Module's (CM) heat shield. The Saturn IB rocket, which was built on the 10 successful launches of Saturn 1 rocket, was the most powerful rocket up to that time.

Construction of the AS-201 spacecraft began in 1963 at the North American Aviation (NAA) plant in California. Assembly for the mission began in 1965 with the Saturn IB first stage arriving at the Cape Kennedy Air Force Station (CKAFS), now the Cape Canaveral Space Force Station, on August 14.

Extensively tested

The CM and SM of the spacecraft arrived within two days of each other in October. After successful mating of the two modules and extensive testing, they were trucked to the launch pad and stacked on top of the rocket by December. By January 1966, the final pieces were in place, and the rocket and spacecraft were declared ready for its mission after a flight readiness review and a countdown demonstration.

On February 26, 1966, the AS-201 mission lifted off after a number of launch delays. With flight director Glynn S. Lunney at the helm, a team of engineers kept an eye on all aspects of the mission.

Both stages of the Saturn IB rocket performed well and the Apollo Command and Service Module (CSM) was placed in its suborbital trajectory, with a peak altitude of 488 km. A camera mounted inside the first stage was later recovered at sea, and it had captured some key moments, including the fiery stage separation.

Helium ingestion in propellant lines, however, resulted in lower thrust than predicted during the first burn and the same problem also affected a second burn to test the engine's restart capability. The Service Propulsion System engine also underperformed, meaning the CM entered the atmosphere at a velocity slower than that planned.

Additionally, the capsule rolled during reentry as an electrical fault in the CM led to a loss of steering. The heat shield performed its duties without any flaws despite all these setbacks and the spacecraft splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean, 75 km from the intended target.

On museum display

The largely successful 37-minute test flight travelled 8,472 km overall. The CM was retrieved by swimmers from the prime recovery ship and it was then sent to the NAA plant for postflight inspections. After using it for land impact tests, NASA donated the capsule, which is now on loan and is displayed at the Strategic Air Command and Aerospace Museum.

The Saturn IB is now largely forgotten as its efforts pale in comparison with the Saturn V rocket, one of the largest and most powerful rockets built and which successfully sent people to the moon. But the Saturn IB rocket and the AS-201 mission were all part of the small stepping stones that made the giant leap possible.

Picture Credit : Google 

A test flight with a number of firsts

The 1960s were a rather exciting time if you were part of NASA. After U.S. President John F. Kennedy stated his goal of landing humans on the moon and returning them safely home before the end of the decade of the 1960s, work at NASA progressed at breakneck speed given the enormity of the task ahead of them.

There were a lot of successes along the way, and setbacks too that proved to be equally important in terms of the overall learning. The Apollo-Saturn (AS) 201 mission in the mid 1960s was one such test flight that had a number of firsts, but also experienced malfunctions.

"All-up" philosophy

Coming at the height of Project Gemini, the AS-201 served as a crucial milestone in our march towards the moon. It used the "all-up" philosophy, according to which all components of a system were tested in a single first flight.

A suborbital test flight, its goals included demonstrating the Saturn IB's capabilities, the operation of Apollo Service Module's (SM) main engine, and determining the effectiveness of the Command Module's (CM) heat shield. The Saturn IB rocket, which was built on the 10 successful launches of Saturn 1 rocket, was the most powerful rocket up to that time.

Construction of the AS-201 spacecraft began in 1963 at the North American Aviation (NAA) plant in California. Assembly for the mission began in 1965 with the Saturn IB first stage arriving at the Cape Kennedy Air Force Station (CKAFS), now the Cape Canaveral Space Force Station, on August 14.

Extensively tested

The CM and SM of the spacecraft arrived within two days of each other in October. After successful mating of the two modules and extensive testing, they were trucked to the launch pad and stacked on top of the rocket by December. By January 1966, the final pieces were in place, and the rocket and spacecraft were declared ready for its mission after a flight readiness review and a countdown demonstration.

On February 26, 1966, the AS-201 mission lifted off after a number of launch delays. With flight director Glynn S. Lunney at the helm, a team of engineers kept an eye on all aspects of the mission.

Both stages of the Saturn IB rocket performed well and the Apollo Command and Service Module (CSM) was placed in its suborbital trajectory, with a peak altitude of 488 km. A camera mounted inside the first stage was later recovered at sea, and it had captured some key moments, including the fiery stage separation.

Helium ingestion in propellant lines, however, resulted in lower thrust than predicted during the first burn and the same problem also affected a second burn to test the engine's restart capability. The Service Propulsion System engine also underperformed, meaning the CM entered the atmosphere at a velocity slower than that planned.

Additionally, the capsule rolled during reentry as an electrical fault in the CM led to a loss of steering. The heat shield performed its duties without any flaws despite all these setbacks and the spacecraft splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean, 75 km from the intended target.

On museum display

The largely successful 37-minute test flight travelled 8,472 km overall. The CM was retrieved by swimmers from the prime recovery ship and it was then sent to the NAA plant for postflight inspections. After using it for land impact tests, NASA donated the capsule, which is now on loan and is displayed at the Strategic Air Command and Aerospace Museum.

The Saturn IB is now largely forgotten as its efforts pale in comparison with the Saturn V rocket, one of the largest and most powerful rockets built and which successfully sent people to the moon. But the Saturn IB rocket and the AS-201 mission were all part of the small stepping stones that made the giant leap possible.

Picture Credit : Google 

When does a paper set on fire doesn't burn to ash? Let’s find out by an experiment!

What you need:

A lighter or a matchbox, a piece of plain paper, water, rubbing alcohol (70% strength), a glass, a measuring cup, a pair of tongs, adult supervision.

What to do:

In the glass, mix 30 ml of water and 90 ml of rubbing alcohol. Stir the mixture well.

Using the tongs, dip the paper into the mixture. Soak it completely.

Lift the paper out of the liquid and shake off any extra droplets. Stow the glass with the mixture away from your experiment table.

Now, using the lighter or a matchstick, set the bottom part of the paper on fire while still holding it with the tongs.

What happens:

If all goes well, the paper should catch fire but it doesn't bum to ash. In fact, the flame goes out, leaving your paper intact.

 Why?

The key is water. If you had dipped the paper into a pure alcohol solution, the paper would have burnt to a crisp.

But when you ignite the paper that is soaked in a water-alcohol mixture, the water absorbs most of the heat generated by the flame and starts to evaporate. This absorption and evaporation of water does not allow the temperature to rise to the point where the paper starts to burn. Needless to say that if the ratio of the alcohol and water is altered, the paper will burn!

Picture Credit : Google 

Can microorganisms blow up balloons?

What you need:

Three small balloons, three packets of yeast, sugar, warm water, three one-litre plastic bottles

What to do:

  • Fill up each bottle with about one inch of very warm water.
  • Put one packet of yeast into each bottle.
  • Now, in the first bottle, put one teaspoon of sugar; in the second one, put two teaspoons, and three teaspoons in the third. Cap all the bottles and shake them well.
  • Open the caps and put the three balloons on the bottles' necks. Leave the bottles undisturbed for a couple of hours.

 What happens:

The balloons begin to inflate in a while. The bottle with the maximum amount of sugar has the most inflated balloon.

 Why?

Yeasts are nothing but a kind of microorganism. They like to feed on sugar. Which is why they are used mostly in baking.

Yeasts require warmth and moisture to become active.

When yeasts begin to feed on sugar, carbon dioxide gas is released. This gas fills the bottle and then inflates the balloon. The more sugar the yeasts get to eat, the more gas they release and the more the balloon inflates.

Picture Credit : Google

Can you use an inverted jar to lift a ball? No lids allowed! Here how you do it.

What you need:

A small ball, a jar with a mouth larger than the ball

  • What to do:
  • Keep the ball on a flat surface, like the floor or a table.
  • Invert the jar over it.
  • Try to pick up the ball with the jar. Can you?
  • Now, start to move the jar in a circle around the ball. Gradually, increase the speed.

What happens:

You can't lift the ball with a stationary jar. But when the jar is moving in a circular motion, the ball also starts to move along the rim until it gradually moves up into the jar. If you continue the circular movement, you can lift the jar right off the table without dropping the ball! This takes a little practice though.

Why?

When the circular motion of the jar is smooth, the ball also begins to move in a circle inside the jar. This happens due to a force called 'centripetal force’.

Centripetal force is the force that acts on a body that is moving in a curved path. While the speed of the ball (and the jars shape) makes it move in a circle, it is centripetal force that keeps it going.

You can lift up the jar when the centripetal force on the ball becomes more than the gravitational force acting on it. Once you slow down or stop rotating the jar, the centripetal force decreases and gravity takes over once more, causing the ball to drop out.

Picture Credit : Google 

How to make Candy rocks at home? Let’s find out by an experiment.

It certainly does! And even more if you can make rock-shaped candy at home!

What you need:

A clean wooden stick, water, sugar, a clothes-pin, a tall, narrow glass jar, a pan, food colour (optional), paper towel

 What to do:

Heat water in a pan.  Bring it to a boil. Ask help from an adult for doing this.

Keep adding in sugar to the boiling water one spoon at a time. Wait for one batch to dissolve before you add the next spoon. There will come a time when no more sugar can dissolve into the water. Stop adding the sugar then and allow the water to cool down.

Dip the wooden stick into the sugar solution and then roll it in some sugar (on a plate). Let it dry completely.

If you want, add food colour into the solution, the darker the better. Pour the sugar water into the glass jar filling it almost to the top.

Clip the stick to the clothes-pin. Let the pin rest on the mouth of the jar as the stick is submerged into the sugar water. It should hang straight without touching the sides of the jar.

Leave the jar undisturbed for a week. You can keep monitoring it though. Cover the top with a paper towel to keep dirt out.

What happens:

Sugar crystals start to grow on the stick. By the end of a week, you have candy on a stick!

Why?

You made a ‘super saturated’ solution when you mixed sugar into the water until it could hold no more. Heating the water added to its capacity of letting sugar dissolve. But once the water cooled, it could not hold that much sugar. So it started forming crystals again. More crystals form as the water evaporates.

The reason these crystals form on the stick is because the stick already had some sugar crystals on it which acted as grabbing points for the other crystals.

Picture Credit : Google 

Have you ever seen water crossing a bridge on its own? Let’s find out by an experiment.

What you need:

Thick tissue paper towels, three glasses, food colours or poster colours

What to do: Arrange the three glasses in a row.

Fill the glasses on both ends with water, leaving the middle one empty.

Add lots of blue colour to the glass on the left, and to the glass on the right, add yellow.

Fold one of the tissues in half lengthwise and place one end in the first glass and the other end in the second. Make sure the tissue touches the bottoms of both glasses without having its middle stuck up too high in the air. If that happens, you can trim the length of the tissues.

The next tissue is placed in a similar manner between the second and the third glasses.

Leave the arrangement, but make sure to keep checking on it intermittently.

What happens:

In a few minutes, we start seeing the coloured water from both the glasses on the edge, climb up the tissue papers. In an hour (maybe more, depending on the thickness of the tissues), the water crosses the paper bridge and starts dripping into the empty glass. In another hour or so, the water level in the middle glass rises as more water from the other two glasses crosses into it. The water in the middle glass is greenish-a mix of yellow and blue colours.

Why?

Water travels up the tissues through a process called 'capillary action’. Capillary action is the movement of a liquid against gravity, through narrow spaces. This is the same principle that allows water to be absorbed by a tree's roots and transported to its leaves.

In this case, the narrow spaces or capillaries are present in the tissues that absorb water, pull it upward and allow it to flow into the middle glass.

Picture Credit : Google 

Can sound travel through empty space? Let's find out by an experiment.

What you need:

Empty glass bottle with a cap, small bell, short firm wire, adhesive tape, matches, and paper

What you do:

  • Attach the bell to the piece of wire. Fix the opposite end of the wire to the inside of the bottle cap with tape. Check if the bell rings when you shake the wire.
  • Screw the cap onto the bottle. Shake the bottle to ensure that the bell jingles inside without touching the sides of the bottle.
  • Unscrew the cap. Tear the paper into shreds and drop the pieces into the bottle.
  • Light two matches and drop them into the bottle. As soon as you do this, quickly screw on the cap with the bell. (Take the help of an adult to do this step.)
  • Wait till the matches and the shredded paper burn out and the bottle cools.
  • Shake the bottle. Can you hear the bell?
  • Open the cap to let in some air and screw it on again. Shake the bottle again. Can you hear the bell now?

What do you observe?

You can hear the bell faintly immediately after the matches extinguish. After you open the cap and screw it on again, you can hear the bell ring louder.

Why does this happen?

Sound needs a medium like air or water to travel through. Sound waves vibrate the particles of the medium. When these vibrations reach our eardrums, we hear sound.

In the experiment, the burning paper and matches used up the oxygen in the sealed bottle, creating a partial vacuum. As sound cannot travel in a vacuum, you cannot hear the bell well until you let in some air into the bottle.

Picture Credit : Google 

Did you know that most of the products that are part of our lives are inventions that happened by chance?

Behind all of these inventions are incredible stories. Let's take a look at some of these inventions that eventually became an integral part of our lives. Here we trace the story of products from lab to lifestyle!

Plastic

Nothing is as ubiquitous as plastic. In fact, this man-made material has become so ingrained into our lives that we interact with one or the other form of plastic every day. But how did its journey begin? It all started with polyethylene, which is more familiar to us as polythene. It is one of the first plastics that was ever used. It was discovered by chance not once, but twice! The first one was sometime before 1900 when German scientist Hans von Pechmann came across a residue in his test tube. He thought that the waxy resin couldn't have any practical applications and failed to check further. The second time was when scientists Eric Fawcett and Reginald Gibson came across this by accident in 1933. When experimenting with ethylene, one of the vessels leaked. The presence of oxygen led to it acting as an initiator, leading to the formation of a white, waxy residue. Thus polythene came to be. The company the duo worked with saw the immense potential of the product and patented it. However, it took a few years until they were able to produce it with perfection. The first product they created out of polythene was a cream-colored walking stick. It was later used widely during World War II as an insulating material for radar cables. The low cost and highly versatile nature of the material were tapped into and the innovation turned into something that permeated into every walk of our lives. And the rest, as they say, is history.

Sticky notes

These canary yellow notes have been around for the past several years. They are universal products and indispensable in offices. Available in a multitude of shapes and colours, these notes are used by not just office-goers but students as well. So how did these sticky notes come to be? This office organising tool was discovered by chance. Spencer Silver was a scientist at the company 3M. He researched adhesives in the laboratory. Over the process, he discovered an adhesive that would stick lightly to surfaces but it wouldn't bond tightly. Silver was trying to develop new adhesives that were stronger and tougher. But this new adhesive was anything but strong or tough. What Silver had discovered was microspheres that would retain their stickiness but had the characteristic of removability. Meanwhile, there was another scientist going through a dilemma. During his practice at the church choir, Art Fry, another 3M scientist, would use little bits of paper to mark the music notes because they would always fall out of the hymn book. He was in search of a bookmark that would stay but not damage the pages. And once he attended the seminar on Silver's microspheres, he had his "Aha" moment. The two scientists partnered and began developing a product. The new adhesive notes proved to be helpful in communication and they could see its immense potential. The notes were supplied to the staff at the company and were later launched to the masses. Thus was born the sticky notes. With it, the duo had forever changed the way people communicate!

Corn flakes

What's for breakfast? Is it corn flakes? It is quite likely that you would have had cornflakes at some point in your life. The Kellogs corn flakes is a known breakfast brand. Did you know that the cereal was developed accidentally? It was in the 1890s that the com flakes were designed. The story starts at the Battle Creek Sanitarium health spa in Battle Creek, Michigan. It was run by brothers John Harvey Kellogg, a doctor, and Will Keith Kellogg who wanted to provide healthy food to the inmates. One night John Kellogg accidentally left a batch of wheat-berry dough midway. This was normally used to produce a type of granola. Rather than throwing it out the next morning, the dough was sent through the rollers. Instead of normal long sheets of dough, they obtained delicate flakes. These were then baked and they discovered a new type of cereal. Will Keith saw the potential of this new cereal and started his own company although John Harvey, who was a proponent of biologic" living, was not interested in making it a business. The Kellogg Company started producing corn flakes for the wider public. It was the start of a whole new cereal breakfast industry.

Lab-grown meat

What's on your plate? Soon it can be lab-grown meat! The farmed meat is getting replaced by meat from the laboratory as meat products are grown from animal cells for human consumption. Recently the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cleared lab-grown meat for human consumption as safe. Here, instead of meat reared from livestock, meat is grown in a sterile environment in a laboratory. The living cells from chicken are first taken and then grown in a laboratory. Thus the required meat product is created. Cultivated meat is dubbed green meat as it does not lead to greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. The absence of the use of antibiotics in animals and a humane way of growing meat are some of the pros of lab-grown meat over traditional livestock production. Seen here is a cooked piece of cultivated chicken breast.

Battery

It powers almost everything. But do you know how it all began? The story behind creating the leakproof battery is quite an interesting one. Back in the day, the battery that was popular was the zinc-carbon battery. But they came with a problem. The zinc would swell and burst. It would cause leakage and short circuits and render the device inoperable. The problem was solved by Herman Anthony, an engineer with the company Ray-O-Vac, which was in the battery business. He used a better grade of manganese in the battery. This reduced the swelling. He then used steel to encase the battery. The battery was the first to solve the problem of leakage. In 1939, it was showcased to the public but the patent was received only in 1940. When World War II happened, batteries were rationed out to civilians. Like most companies at the time, Ray-O-Vac started supplying batteries to the military. The battery sealed in steel was widely used in flashlights, radios, walkie-talkies, mine detectors, and so on. After the war, it was used by the masses to power a plethora of devices.

Strikeable matches

Fire has been humankind's greatest discovery. And so have been the discovery of strikeable matches that we use now. It gave us the ability to light fires quickly and made life easier. But did you know that the strikeable match was invented by chance? The story takes us back to 1826. It was an English chemist John Walker who invented it. He was working on an experimental paste that can be used in guns. He noticed that the stick he was using burst into flames when he scraped it. He observed that it was the coating of chemicals on the stick that led to the wooden stick catching fire. That was how the first friction match was invented. He started selling his "friction lights", which became a huge success. While the first friction matches were made of cardboard, he soon started replacing it with wooden splints. However, he never patented his work and Londoner Samuel Jones copied the idea and launched his own matches as "Lucifers" in 1829.

Picture Credit : Google 

Stories behind inventions

Who set up the world's first website? When was it? Any idea how large the first commercial microwave oven was? Did you know two inventors, working independently, came up with near-identical integrated circuits at about the same time? Who were they? Read on to find out the answers and the backstories of a few other inventions

Connecting the world

In 1969, the Internet took its first baby steps as Arpanet, a network created by the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It connected universities and research centres, but its use was restricted to a few million people.

Then in the 1990s, the technology made a quantum jump. Tim Berners-Lee, an English software consultant wrote a program called 'Enquire’, named after 'Enquire Within Upon Everything', a Victorian-age encyclopaedia he had used as a child. He was working for CERN in Switzerland at the time and wanted to organise all his work so that others could access it easily through their computers. He developed a language coding system called HTML or HyperText Markup Language, a location unique to every web page called URL (Universal Resource Locator) and a set of protocols or rules (HTTP or Hyper Text Transfer Protocols) that allowed these pages to be linked together on the Internet. Berners-Lee is credited with setting up the world's first website in 1991.

 

Berners-Lee did not earn any money from his inventions. However, others such as Marc Andreessen, who co-founded Netscape in 1994, became one of the Web's first millionaires.

It began with a bar of chocolate!

The discovery that microwaves could cook food super quickly was purely accidental. In 1945, American physicist Percy Spencer was testing a magnetron tube engineered to produce very short radio waves for radar systems, when the chocolate bar in his pocket melted. Puzzled that he hadn't felt the heat, Spencer placed popcorn kernel near the tube, and in no time, the popcorn began crackling. His company Raytheon developed this idea further and in 1947, the first commercial microwave oven was introduced - all of 1.5 metres high and weighing 340 kg!

Since it was too expensive to mass-produce, Raytheon went back to the drawing board and in the 1950s, came out with a microwave the size of a small refrigerator. A few years later came the first regular-sized oven-far cheaper and smaller than the previous models.

Chip-sized marvel

A microchip, often called a "chip" or an integrated circuit (IC), is what makes modern computers more compact and faster. Rarely larger than 5 cm in size and manufactured from a semi-conducting material, a chip contains intricate electronic circuits.

Two separate inventors, working independently, invented near-identical integrated circuits at about the same time! In the late 1950s, both American engineer Jack Kilby (Texas Instruments) and research engineer Robert Noyce (Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation) were working on the same problem- how to pack in the maximum electrical components in minimal space. It occurred to them that all parts of a circuit, not just the transistor, could be made on a single chip of silicon, making it smaller and much easier to produce.

In 1959, both the engineers applied for patents, and instead of battling it out, decided to cooperate to improve chip technology. In 1961, Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation launched the first commercially available integrated circuit. This IC had barely five components and was the size of a small finger. All computers began using chips, and chips also helped create the first electronic portable calculators. Today an IC, smaller than a coin, can hold millions of transistors!

Keeping pace with the heart

Pacemakers send out electrical signals to the heart to regulate erratic heartbeats. Powered by electricity, early pacemakers were as big as televisions, with a single wire or 'lead' being implanted in the patient's heart. A patient could move only as far as the wire would let them and electricity breakdowns were a major cause of worry!

In 1958, a Swedish surgeon and an engineer came together to invent the first battery-powered external pacemaker. Around the same time, American electrical engineer Wilson Greatbatch was creating a machine to record heartbeats. Quite by accident, he realised that by making some changes, he was getting a steady electric pulse from the small device. After two years of research, Greatbatch unveiled the world's first successful implantable pacemaker that could surgically be inserted under the skin of the patient's chest.

Picture Credit : Google 

Who received India's first Nobel Prize for physics?

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman was an Indian physicist known for his work in the field of light scattering. CV Raman was India's first physicist to win a Nobel Physics Prize in 1930 “for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him".

Nobel Prize-winning Sir CV. Raman is known for his pioneering work in Physics. India celebrates National Science Day on February 28 each year to mark the discovery of the Raman Effect on the day in 1928.

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, also known as C.V. Raman, was a pioneering physicist. Born on November 7, 1888, he was a precocious child, who excelled in Physics during his student days at Presidency College, and later, at the University of Madras. He is best known for his discovery of the Raman Effect, which is a phenomenon of scattering of light that occurs when light passes through a transparent medium. This discovery revolutionised the field of spectroscopy and earned him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930.

Raman was born in Tiruchirapalli in Tamil Nadu. He showed an early aptitude for mathematics and science. He graduated from Presidency College in Madras with a degree in Physics and went on to work at the Indian Finance Service. However, he soon realised that his true passion was in Physics and left his job to pursue a career in research at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science. It was here that he was given an opportunity to mentor research scholars from several universities, including the University of Calcutta.

He was appointed as Director (first Indian) of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, in 1933. In 1947, he was appointed the first National Professor of independent India. He retired from the Indian Institute in 1948. About a year later, he established the Raman Research Institute in Bangalore.

Raman was not only a brilliant scientist, but also a visionary. He believed that science should be accessible to all people, regardless of their background or social status. He was instrumental in the founding of several science institutions. His aim was to encourage the study of science in India.

In addition to the Nobel Prize, Raman received many other honours and awards throughout his career. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in London in 1924 and was conferred the knighthood by the British government in 1929. He also received numerous awards and honours from the Indian government, including the Bharat Ratna in 1954. India celebrates National Science Day on February 28 each year to mark the discovery of the Raman Effect on the day in 1928.

Raman passed away on November 21, 1970, at the age of 82. He is remembered as one of India's greatest scientists and is still widely celebrated as a pioneer in the field of physics. His legacy continues to inspire young scientists and researchers, who continue to build on his work to expand our understanding of the world around us.

Picture Credit : Google 

What are the meaning, origin and usage of word ‘Satiate’?

(Pronounced sa tiate)

Meaning: This is a formal word that means to satisfy a need or a desire.

Origin: Both satiate and sad are related to the Latin adjective satis, meaning enough. When we say our desire, thirst, curiosity, etc. has been satiated, we mean it has been fully satisfied or in other words 'have had enough’.

Usage: She finished the meal and sat back with a satiated sigh.

Picture Credit : Google 

What are the meaning, origin and usage of word ‘Intricate’?

(pronounced as in truh kuht)

Meaning: The word intricate is used as an adjective to describe the nature of being very complicated or detailed.

Origin:  The word has been around since early 15th Century. It is derived from Latin intricatus meaning entangled past participle of intricare to entangle perplex embarrass."

The usage of the word has been fairly even over the last 200 years or so, with minor ups and downs.

Usage: Human history is intricately woven with our views of the starry skies.

Picture Credit : Google 

What are the meaning, origin and usage of word ‘Gravamen’?

Pronounced as: Ggruh-vay-men

 Meaning: A noun, "gravamen" means the significant part of a grievance or complaint.

Origin: The word traces its origin to the Latin word "gravare” meaning “to burden". Its first known use was in 1602. The word is generally used in legal contexts:

Usage: The gravamen of the complaint was that the malpractices by the minister's aides had pushed the kingdom and its residents into a state of deprivation of resources.

Picture Credit : Google