WHICH IS THE SMALLEST CONSTELLATION?

The smallest constellation is Crux, the Southern Cross. A small group of four bright stars that forms a Latin cross in the southern sky, Crux is visible from latitudes south of 25 degrees north and completely invisible in latitudes above 35 degrees north (in the United States, roughly north of Texas).

Originally it was part of the constellation Centaur, but became its own constellation during the 16th century when it was used as a valuable navigation tool by explorers. Its area is calculated at about 68 square degrees.

Blue-white ? Crucis (Acrux) is the most southerly member of the constellation and, at magnitude 0.8, the brightest. The three other stars of the cross appear clockwise and in order of lessening magnitude: ? Crucis (Mimosa), ? Crucis (Gacrux), and ? Crucis (Imai). ? Crucis (Ginan) also lies within the cross asterism. Many of these brighter stars are members of the Scorpius–Centaurus association, a large but loose group of hot blue-white stars that appear to share common origins and motion across the southern Milky Way.

Crux contains four Cepheid variables, each visible to the naked eye under optimum conditions. Crux also contains the bright and colourful open cluster known as the Jewel Box (NGC 4755) on its eastern border. Nearby to the southeast is a large dark nebula spanning 7° by 5° known as the Coalsack Nebula, portions of which are mapped in the neighbouring constellations of Centaurus and Musca.

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WHICH IS THE LARGEST CONSTELLATION?

Hydra is the largest of the 88 modern constellations, measuring 1303 square degrees, and also the longest at over 100 degrees. Its southern end borders Libra and Centaurus and its northern end borders Cancer. It was included among the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy. Commonly represented as a water snake, it straddles the celestial equator.

Despite its size, Hydra contains only one moderately bright star, Alphard, designated Alpha Hydrae. It is an orange giant of magnitude 2.0, 177 light-years from Earth. Its traditional name means "the solitary one". Beta Hydrae is a blue-white star of magnitude 4.3, 365 light-years from Earth. Gamma Hydrae is a yellow giant of magnitude 3.0, 132 light-years from Earth.

Hydra has one bright binary star, Epsilon Hydrae, which is difficult to split in amateur telescopes; it has a period of 1000 years and is 135 light-years from Earth. The primary is a yellow star of magnitude 3.4 and the secondary is a blue star of magnitude 6.7. However, there are several dimmer double stars and binary stars in Hydra. 27 Hydrae is a triple star with two components visible in binoculars and three visible in small amateur telescopes. The primary is a white star of magnitude 4.8, 244 light-years from Earth. The secondary, a binary star, appears in binoculars at magnitude 7.0 but is composed of a magnitude 7 and a magnitude 11 star; it is 202 light-years from Earth. 54 Hydrae is a binary star 99 light-years from Earth, easily divisible in small amateur telescopes. The primary is a yellow star of magnitude 5.3 and the secondary is a purple star of magnitude 7.4. N Hydrae (N Hya) is a pair of stars of magnitudes 5.8 and 5.9. Struve 1270 (?1270) consists of a pair of stars, magnitudes 6.4 and 7.4.

The other main named star in Hydra is Sigma Hydrae (? Hydrae), which also has the name of Minchir, from the Arabic for snake's nose. At magnitude 4.54, it is rather dim. The head of the snake corresponds to the ?shlesh? Nakshatra, the lunar zodiacal constellation in Indian astronomy. The name of Nakshatra (Ashlesha) became the proper name of Epsilon Hydrae since 1 June 2018 by IAU.

Hydra is also home to several variable stars. R Hydrae is a Mira variable star 2000 light-years from Earth; it is one of the brightest Mira variables at its maximum of magnitude 3.5. It has a minimum magnitude of 10 and a period of 390 days. V Hydrae is an unusually vivid red variable star 20,000 light-years from Earth. It varies in magnitude from a minimum of 9.0 to a maximum of 6.6. Along with its notable color, V Hydrae is also home to at least two exoplanets. U Hydrae is a semi-regular variable star with a deep red color, 528 light-years from Earth. It has a minimum magnitude of 6.6 and a maximum magnitude of 4.2; its period is 115 days.

Hydra includes GJ 357, an M-type main sequence star located only 31 light-years from the Solar System. This star has three confirmed exoplanets in its orbit, one of which, GJ 357 d, is considered to be a "Super-Earth" within the circumstellar habitable zone.

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HOW MANY CONSTELLATIONS ARE RECOGNIZED BY INTERNATIONAL ASTRONOMICAL UNION?

There are 88 modern constellations recognized by the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The list of the modern constellations was adopted by the IAU in 1922. The constellation boundaries as we know them today were set in the late 1920s. 36 modern constellations lie principally in the northern celestial hemisphere, while 52 are found in the southern sky.

The list of the modern constellations and the abbreviations used for them were produced by American astronomer Henry Norris Russell and approved by the IAU in May 1922. Russell’s list corresponded to the constellations listed in the Revised Harvard Photometry star catalogue, published by Harvard College Observatory in 1908. The constellation boundaries were drawn by Belgian astronomer Eugène Delporte and officially adopted in 1928.

The 88 modern constellations have different origins. Most of them are roughly based on the 48 ancient constellations catalogued by the Greek astronomer Claudius Ptolemy of Alexandria in his Almagest, an ancient astronomical treatise written in the 2nd century CE. These constellations are mostly associated with figures from Greek mythology. They include Andromeda, Cassiopeia, Perseus, Pegasus, Hercules, Orion, Ursa Major, Ursa Minor, Canis Major, Canis Minor, Eridanus, and the 12 zodiac constellations.

However, Ptolemy did not create these constellations. They were already well-known to observers long before his time. Even though they are called Greek constellations, they were not necessarily created by the Greeks. Depictions of some of the ancient constellations or the asterisms they are known for go back to prehistoric times and their creators are unknown.

Fifty of the modern 88 constellations are based on the Greek ones. Only one of Ptolemy’s constellations – Argo Navis – is no longer in use. Once the largest constellation in the sky, Argo Navis represented the ship of Jason and the Argonauts. It was divided into three smaller constellations – Carina, Puppis and Vela – by the French astronomer Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille in the 18th century. The three smaller constellations remain in use.

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WHO TOOK THE FIRST HATTRICK IN IPL?

The Indian Premier League was played for the first time in 2008 and saw three hat-tricks in the first season itself. The first of those was taken by Chennai Super Kings (CSK) Lakshmipathy Balaji.

In the match between CSK and Kings XI Punjab (now Punjab Kings) on May 10, 2008 at the MA Chidambaram Stadium in Chennai, Punjab won the toss and elected to field first. Even though CSK were in a spot of bother at 64 for three, fifties from S Badrinath and MS Dhoni helped them post 181 for four in their 20 overs. Punjab were on track at the end of 12 overs, as they were 95 for 2 in their chase of 182. In the space of five balls, however, Balaji dismissed both their set batsmen - Ramnaresh Sarwan (20) off the first ball of the 13th over and opener Shaun Marsh (38-ball 58) off the fifth ball.

Having derailed Punjab's chase, Balaji added more gloss to his figures with the first ever IPL hat-trick.

Bowling the final over of the match, Balaji dismissed Irfan Pathan, Piyush Chawla and Vikram Singh of the third, fourth and fifth deliveries for his hat-trick. CSK won the match by 18 runs.

DID YOU KNOW?

L Balaji, who finished with figures of 5 for 24 from his four overs, was declared the player of the match.

Including Yuzvendra Chahal's hat-trick in the ongoing season, there have been 21 hat-tricks in the IPL so far, taken by 18 bowlers.

Amit Mishra is the only bowler to have taken three hat-tricks in the IPL Yuvraj Singh comes second with two hat-tricks. The remaining 16 bowlers have taken one hat-trick each in the IPL.

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WHY SOME SPECIES HAVE YELLOW BLOOD?

When an animal has a high concentration off vanabin in the blood it turns yellow. The yellow color is caused by the metal called vanadium which is found in Vanabin proteins. Scientists do not know why animals have these high concentrations of vanabin as it doesn’t help the circulation of oxygen. So that is still to be explored.

Beetles have yellow-ish blood like several other bugs. You might have noticed this whenever big bug splashes again in the front of your car.

Many people don’t realize that insects typically don’t even have blood vessels. Instead, they have a large hole inside the skeleton where all the blood resides.

Sea Cucumbers have yellow blood. Sea Cucumbers are weird animals. They live down at the bottom of the ocean and are very simple animals. They might look like fruit and the name doesn’t make it easier to categorize this as an animal. But it is an animal and is it quite remarkable. They have thousands of tiny feet as you can see at the picture above. It will move slowly at the bottom of the ocean.Again, the reason for the yellow color is found in the proteins of the blood. It has a high concentration of vanabin which has yellow pigment. One of the strangest facts about Sea Cucumbers is that they can change from male to female during their lifetime. It’s not possible to distinguish the males from the females from the exterior anyway.

Credit : Animal how

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