What is the significance of radio in today's world?

Over 2 billion radio receivers and over 20,000 radio stations exist worldwide. There is no truth about the notion that radio will be replaced by TV or other modern communication technologies, as it continues to expand Being the most economical electronic medium to broadcast and receive in, it breaks down barriers of illiteracy and isolation, making it the preferred electronic medium of the underprivileged. In radio broadcasting, community radio is a significant third tier that is different from commercial and public service radio.

What is a Community Radio?


Community Radio Stations (CRSs) are low-power radio stations designed for local communities to own and run. Local perspectives on topics related to health, nutrition, education, agriculture, and other topics are provided in a forum by Community Radio. People may immediately relate to the Community Radio broadcast because it is in their native language. A source of regional folk music and cultural legacy, the radio is especially important in a country like India where each state has its own language and unique cultural flavour. Community radio stations have grown significantly in popularity and number in the last 20 years. The social and economic advantages that arise from providing regular people with access to relevant information are now becoming more widely recognized.

The history of community radio

It was in Latin America, around 50 years ago, that the groundbreaking experiences that have given rise to community radio. The initial experiences-known the Miners' Radios in Bolivia in 1947 and Radio as Sutatenza in Colombia that same year were sparked by poverty and social injustice. Community radio emerged as a significant phenomenon in Europe, serving as an opponent or substitute for mainstream broadcast media, despite the breakthrough work being done in Latin America. Following the fall of the colonial government in South Africa, community radio stations across the continent were established and eventually evolved into a social movement.

The Indian government published the first set of community radio guidelines and the necessary equipment in early 2003, but limited the eligibility to educational institutions alone. The goal of establishing community radio stations that would involve local communities in the content production process has just recently expanded to include non-profit organizations, agricultural research institutes, and educational institutions.

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I aspire to become a journalist and want to take up Arts

I recently finished giving my Std X board exams. I am good at writing and I am creative too. I aspire to become a journalist and want to take up Arts. But now I have begun to have doubts whether I should go for it or not. If I do, can you suggest some good junior colleges in Pune for Arts?

Since you are creative and good in writing, you will probably do well in the field of journalism. Aim for courses in journalism, mass media, advertising, etc. But those will be at graduation stage. Take Arts in 10+2. It is offered at all junior colleges in Pune. The better your marks in Std X, better your chances are to get admission in a good college. To judge your capabilities, start writing and send in articles for publication in your school magazine or youth magazines.

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I want to pursue a career in broadcasting

I am a Std XI Commerce student. I want to pursue a career in broadcasting (journalism). Please tell me about the entrance test and whether we can get direct admission? How to start preparing for this and what skills are needed for it?

Do you have comprehensive command of grammar and vocabulary? Can you communicate clearly, confidently and assertively? Are you naturally a "people person", finding it easy to meet and talk with new acquaintances? If you answered yes to these questions, Bachelor in Journalism may be a good choice for you.

Journalism teaches students the skills necessary for careers in reporting, writing, and editing functions with newspapers, wire services, magazines and special publications. The duration of the course is 3 years. Generally, institutes conduct their own entrance test followed by an interview for the selection of suitable candidates. Basic eligibility is 10+2 (any stream). The objective of these tests is to judge awareness of the current events and the essential skills required of a conscientious journalist.

Personal qualities rather than training are more important for becoming a good journalist. However, a good course in journalism gives you the chance to do an internship with some of the best names in the business, besides teaching the basic skills. I have completed my 12th. I want to pursue Bachelor's in Pharmacy. What are the career opportunities? Is there a need for pharmacy graduates and post-graduates and higher options in pharmacy?

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I am interested in a career in film direction

I am interested in a career in film direction. Is this a safe career option? What are the skills one should have to enter this field? Should I join a film school after completing my graduation in commerce or after Std XII?

Film directors are responsible for the overall shape or treatment of the film. They should be able to give the right instructions to the technical experts in order to obtain the desired results. To get into film direction you not only need a passion for film-making but also skills like leadership qualities, ability to bring out talent in others, creative instincts as well as managerial and administrative abilities.

There are diploma, post diploma and even certificate courses available throughout India. A good course introduces aspiring directors to the craft of film-making and the art of visual narrative. Some of the institutes include: Film and Television Institute of India (FTII), Pune; Whistling Woods International, Mumbai; Zee Institute Of Media Arts (ZIMA), Mumbai; Asian Academy of Film and TV.

Different institutes have different eligibility and admission criterion. Duration and eligibility of a course depends on the course one opts for and the institution chosen. For example, FTII offers a three-year PG diploma in direction for which eligibility is a bachelor's degree.

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My dream is to be a magazine journalist

My dream is to be a magazine journalist. I constantly read magazines and am fascinated by them. I've always wanted to work at a successful magazine. I would like your advice about qualifications, how to work in a magazine company, etc. that could help me with a career in the industry.

To become a journalist, you should go for courses like Bachelor's in Journalism/Mass Communication. Many corporations do not require a specific specialization and some students do perform quite well without specialized education in journalism. However, an advanced degree can offer an edge, it does teach the basics of journalism; what is news, how to gather information, how to think on your feet, how to conduct an interview, how to write a good story, etc.

Journalism is not all glamour; it is serious and responsible work. Join this field only if you're passionate about knowing what is really happening in society and conveying it correctly to the readers. Meanwhile, to develop your communication skills, start writing, maybe for your school magazine or some website or even a magazine like The Teenager Today. Maturity, objectivity and a sensible train of thought are essential.

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I want to do B.M.M

I want to do B.M.M. Is there a good scope in Mumbai? What are the job opportunities in this field?

Bachelor in Mass Media (BMM) teaches students the skills necessary for careers in reporting, writing and editing functions with newspapers, wire services, magazines and special publications. It has been designed to provide students with a firm grounding in communication skills, critical thinking and creativity.

During the course, emphasis is given to field assignments and practicals. A good course in journalism gives you the chance to do an internship with some of the best names in business, besides teaching the basic skills.

Students of B.M.M. are usually employed by newspapers and magazines, television channels, radio stations, websites and other media. Some of them do freelance work. Due to an increase in the number of TV channels, radio stations, websites, suburban weekly and daily newspapers there is an increase in jobs in this field. Some find this field too stressful and hectic, or don't like the lifestyle and transfer to public relations or advertising work.

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What is a bridging shot?

Films are stories told through the visual medium. And the camera is a filmmakers pen. To keep the viewers glued to the screen, filmmakers have to employ numerous visual ploys, including camera techniques and special effects. Today, let's look at one such creative technique called bridging shot.

What it does:

These shots are inserted in a film to indicate the passage of time between two scenes. Much like a literal bridge, they connect two scenes to allow time jumps in the narrative.

Such shots are necessary to maintain the film's pace. Some commonly used bridging shots are calendar pages flying, montages of newspaper headlines, and time-lapse shots of clouds passing, and lines drawn across a map to indicate travel.

Where was it used:

In "New Moon", the second film in the "Twilight" saga, the scene with Bella Swan sitting in front of a window watching the seasons change, is a classic example of bridging shot. So, the next time you watch a film, keep your eyes open for a bridging shot and try to identify its purpose.

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What are different types of media?


The many ways people seek to communicate information to a large audience are known as the media. This communication can be in written, spoken, printed, or digital form. Throughout history, leaps in technology from the invention of printing to growth of the Internet have led to better, faster ways of reaching people. Today, information can be relayed around the globe in seconds.


The word “digital” refers to the way that information is turned into number-based codes before being sent or stored via electronics. The Internet is the key form of digital media, and has opened up mass media to the individual. Anyone with a blog or website can express opinions to a huge audience.


In this digital age, media content is available on many different platforms. News, films, and television programmers can be viewed on Smartphones, tablets, computers, and smart televisions. In addition, these digital devices also enable people to create as well as consume media content, via social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter.


Since the early broadcasts of the 1930s, television has brought news and entertainment to a wide audience. Today, television and films can be watched from home. DVDs, smart televisions, and online streaming services, such as Netflix, allow viewers to choose between thousands of shows, as well as record, pause, and rewind them.


In 1938, a radio dramatization of The War of the Worlds in the United States convinced many listeners that an actual Martian invasion was in progress. Today, radio stations still fill the airwaves with music, talk, news, and drama.


Media is a global business. The majority of the world’s media outlets are controlled by just a handful of international companies. Satellites orbiting Earth transmit television broadcasts around the world.


Published daily or weekly, newspapers contain news, information, feature stories, and advertising. China leads the world with more than 100 million copies circulating daily. Today, many papers are available to read online.


The content of a magazine does not usually date as quickly as that of a newspaper. Magazines may cover current events or they may be aimed at a specific audience, for example, movie or music fans.

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What's the longest movie ever invented?

While television and web series run for weeks together (divided into 30 to 40 minute-long episodes), films are usually no longer than two hours. However, Swedish filmmakers Erika Magnusson and Daniel Andersson challenged this practice in their film by making it 857 hours long. Imagine sitting through such a long film!

What's it about

An experimental film, "Logistics" lacks any conventional structure. It follows the life cycle of a pedometer, a tiny plastic electronic device used by people to count their steps and monitor their pulse rate. The film follows the pedometer's journey in reverse chronological order. It begins at a store in Stockholm, where the pedometer is sold and then traces it back to a factory in China's Bao'an distict, where it was manufactured.

What makes it special?

The film is shot in real time over 37 days and 37 nights, nonstop. This helps the viewers understand the actual time and distance taken by the product to reach from China to Sweden.

To get a first-hand experience, the filmmakers travelled with the product as it made its way aboard a large container ship going from Sweden to China, a freight train to the port of Gothenburg, then a truck to the port of Shenzhen and a factory in Bao'an.

It offers a peek into the realities of online shopping and global logistics. The film was exhibited in Stockholm in 2012.

Since it would be difficult to sit through such a long film, "Logistics" has been broken down into short, two-minute clips - one for each day of the journey on its website. You can watch it on logisticsartproject.com.

Did you know?

Longest films in the world

  • "Ambiance": Another Swedish film "Ambiance", which was scheduled to release in 2020, is 720 hours long, which is equivalent to a whopping 30 days. The film's trailer, which came out in April 2016, was seven hours and twenty minutes long!
  • "Hamlet": Kenneth Branagh's "Hamlet" released in 1996 lasts 242 minutes.
  • "Cleopatra": Joseph L. Mankiewicz's 1963 film "Cleopatra" is 248 minutes long.

Longest films in India

  • "Doon School Quintet" is a documentary series created by American visual anthropologist. It has a runtime of more than eight hours (494 minutes)
  • "Czechmate", a documentary by Shivendra Singh Dungarpur runs for 448 minutes (roughly seven and a half hours.)
  • "LOC Kargil": The 2003 film "LOC Kargil", based on the Kargil War and directed by J.P. Dutta is four hours and fifteen minutes long.

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Which is the longest running play?

Compared to films and television series, plays are usually not that popular today. However, there is one play that's an exception to this. Agatha Christie's "The Mousetrap" has been playing for the last 68 years. It is considered to be the longest running play - it opened in 1952 and ran till March 16, 2020, when all theatres were shut down due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

What's it about

"The Mousetrap" is a murder mystery set in "the present", which refers to postwar England (since the play came out during that time). It revolves around a murder near Monkswell Manor, a newly opened bed and breakfast. All of the guests harbour a secret and fit the description of the culprit.

It was written by Christie as a short radio play for Queen Mary's birthday. Titled "Three Blind Mice starring Barry Morse", it was first broadcast in May 1947. Later it was renamed and performed on the stage for the first time as "The Mousetrap" at the Theatre Royal, Nottingham in the U.K. on October 6, 1952.

In the long run

A few weeks later, it moved to the Ambassadors Theatre in West End London on November 25, 1952, where it continued to be performed for the next 22 years. Because of its soaring popularity, it transferred to the larger St Martin's Theatre, next door in 1974. The London run is said to have exceeded 28,000 performances. And, even Christie did not expect "The Mousetrap" to run for such a long time, according to her biography.

What makes it special?

Before the COVID-19 pandemic watching "The Mousetrap" had become a sort of ritual among many tourists visiting London. The original cast included some of the finest English actors such as Richard Attenborough (of the "Jurassic Park" fame), Mysie Monte and David Raven.

What keeps the audience hooked is the whodunnit plot and the twist in the tale. In fact, the performers are known to request the audience not to reveal the ending to those who have not watched it.

Interestingly, the clock on the mantle piece of the fireplace, one of the props on the stage, is the same one that has been used since the very first performance and has survived over the years.


  • During the Diamond Anniversary year of "The Mousetrap a touring production visited regional theatres for the first time in its history, whilst the London nun continued uninterrupted.
  • Christie gave the rights to the play to her grandson Mathew Prichard as a birthday present. Under the copyright, only one production of the play in addition to the West End production can be performed annually. What's more no film adaptation can be produced until the West End production has been closed for at least six months.

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What are OTT platforms?

OTT streaming platforms and digital news providers operating in the country have now been brought under the jurisdiction of the Information and Broadcasting Ministry. This means their content will be regulated by the I & B Ministry. But what are OTT platforms?

What does OTT stand for?

The acronym OTT stands for “Over the Top” service. OTT platforms are audio and video steaming services. They provide content on request over the Internet. Which means content of one’s choice can be watched by the individual consumer anytime anywhere, without the need for cable or DTH services. In order to view the content, the consumer needs a device (such as mobile, tablet, or laptop) that supports OTT and an internet connection. One major advantage with OTT is consumers pay for specific platforms they want access to. Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, Disney+ Hotstar, ALTBalaji, Zee5, VOOT, Jio Cinema, and Sony LIV are some of the OTT platforms available.

How do they work?

A relatively new form of entertainment, OTT platforms are classified as digital media, OTT platforms started out as content-hosting platforms but soon ventured into production, making films, serials, and documentaries. They buy the rights to the movies they wish to release or stream from the producers, or even produce them in collaboration with production houses. While most OTT platforms provide some content for free, they charge a monthly subscription for premium content. During the COVID-19 outbreak, many filmmakers turned to major OTT platforms to release their films instead of waiting for theaters to reopen. For instance, Jyotika’s “Ponmagal Vandhal” was the first Tamil film to release on an OTT platform, Amazon Prime Video, in May 2020 after theaters were shut due to the pandemic.

What are the new rules?

So far, OTT platforms have remained largely unregulated, providing diverse, versatile content to viewers. The Government tightened its grip on these streaming platforms following growing complaints of alleged objectionable content in some of the shows streamed. The new rules mandate these video streaming platforms to classify content into five age-specific categories, set up a grievance redressal mechanism, and appoint an officer to address grievances. The three-tier grievance resolution system begins with self-regulation by the content platform and ends at a government-appointed panel headed by a ministry official. The government-appointed committee will look at complaints that remain unresolved at the self-regulating level.

Quick Facts

  • There are over 40 OTT service providers in India.
  • India is currently the world’s fastest growing OTT market, and is all set to emerge as the world’s sixth-largest by 2024.
  • Over 22 million viewers in the country watched subscription-based video-on-demand content in 2020. This figure is projected to touch 57 million by 2022.
  • nexGTv was the first OTT mobile app to live-stream IPL cricket matches during the 2013 season.


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What is dramatic monologue?

“Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears;

I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.

The evil that men do lives after them;

The good is oft interred with their bones;

So let it be with Caesar…”

Strong and hard-hitting, you’re probably familiar with these lines from William Shakespeare’s well-known play, “Julius Caesar”. But did you know that this famous address by Marc Antony to the people of Rome is known as a monologue?

Dramatic monologues are popular literary devices. They are long speeches delivered by a single character on stage in a theatre production or on camera in a film. Monologues can be traced back to ancient Greek theatre. The term itself is derived from the Greek words monos (single) and legein (to speak).

Monologues offer a peek into the backstory of the character spoken about. Since a monologue turns the spotlight on a particular character, it offers that actor a unique opportunity to display his acting prowess.

But monologues are not to be confused with soliloquies, which are often internal reflections of a character on stage when alone. While a monologue is addressed to other characters and the audience, soliloquy as a device is employed when a character is talking to itself I and when it’s not meant to be heard by the other characters in the production. Soliloquy is a form of internal monologue. The “To Be or Not to Be” speech from Shakespeare’s “Hamlet” is arguably the best example of a soliloquy monologue.


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What is TRP?

Very often we hear people talking about the TRP of a TV channel or programme increasing. What does it mean? How is TRP estimated?

TRP is a metric used to measure the reach of the television. Standing for Television Rating Point, TRP tells us which programme or channel is viewed the most. TRP indicates how popular a show or channel is. The higher the TRP, the wider the viewership. In other words, TRPs indicate how many people watched which programmes or channels for how long during a particular period.

How does TRP help?

TRP helps advertisers know the pulse of the audience. Advertisements being a costly investment, advertisers need to ensure maximum reach of their ads for the benefit of their product. According to the TRP of a programme or channel, they decide where to display their ads. Higher TRP means bigger audience and more money from advertisers.

How is it measured?

The Broadcast Audience Research Council (BARC) India, a joint industry body represented by advertisers, ad agencies and broadcasters, carries out television ratings in India. It has installed a device called BAR-O-meter in over 40,000 households across the country to measure viewership of hundreds of channels. The device tracks the shows being watched and provides data on viewership patterns across age and socio-economic groups. The panel households are assumed to be representative of the country’s population and this sampling helps estimate the viewing patterns of crores of viewers.

Every Thursday, BARC releases data comparing the viewership of varied programmes and channels. However, it has announced a three-month suspension of ratings of news channels following the latest TRP manipulation scam.


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What is the career in Film making?

Direction, editing cinematography, production, are some of the avenues in film making.

Finding work in the film industry has become relatively easier today with several universities offering specialisations in Filmmaking and Mass Media and familiarising them with the basic filmmaking process. An aspirant who has a great idea and is passionate about converting it into a motion picture can become a filmmaker. And a bachelor's degree in Art and Drama can give you an edge.

How it works?

Making a film is not as simple as it looks. From pre-production to post-production, there are many variables at play. A director has to be involved in each and every process from scripting and dialogue writing to editing. The director translates a script creatively, decides the cast costumes, the venue of shoot and chooses assistants and producers to help the director manage the entire production by looking into the operational aspects such as hiring technicians, managing locations, arranging camera rentals and so on.

What are the prospects?

India is the largest producer of films. Bollywood alone is valued at more than $2.28 billion. Other than Bollywood, the South Indian Film Industry as well as the Punjab Film Industry, not to forget television channels and ad films, employ a great number of directors, cinematographers, screenwriters, etc. Major cities such as Mumbai, Chennai, Chandigarh, New Delhi and Bengaluru have opportunities for talented workforce in films, television, and even theatre.

Where to study?

  • Film and Television Institute of India, Pune: Postgraduate diploma course in Direction and Screenplay Writing - Three years.

  • Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute, Kolkata: PG Programme in Cinema.

  • Xavier Institute of Communications, Mumbai: Diploma in Film, Television and Digital Video Production - 10 months, full-time.

  • M.G.R. Government Film and Television Institute, Chennai: Bachelor of Visual Arts and Diploma in Film Technology and Television Production: Cinematography: Diploma in Direction and Screenplay writing and Television Production; Diploma in Film Editing and Television Production.

Required skills

  • A knack for films: Knowledge about films across regions and genres.

  • Keen observational skills: An eye for detail and find a story in everyday life.

  • Knowledge of all the aspects of filmmaking

  • Good communication and planning skills: Conveying thoughts and ideas clearly to the entire crew and getting work done on time.

  • One should be able to make last minute changes and at the same time stick to the budget


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What is the career in film making?

A director’s role

The director translates a script creatively, decides the cast, costumes, venue of shoot and chooses technicians and producers to help the director manage the entire production by looking into the operational aspects that include hiring technicians, managing locations, arranging camera rentals and so on.

According to Chowdhury, the first thing one requires to become a director is a knack for films. “You need to watch a lot of films. I started watching Hindi and Bengali cinema and then moved onto foreign films,” he says.

It is equally important to acquire knowledge of all the aspects of film making. A director has to be involved in each and every process from scripting and dialogue writing to editing. “One should be able to close one’s eyes and visualize the entire film,” says Chowdhury.

Good communication and planning skills will help in conveying thoughts and ideas clearly to the entire crew and get work done on time.

What to study?

Film making is taught as part of mass media at an undergraduate level. You can opt for special courses offered by film schools for further specializations.


Film and Television Institute of India, Pune: Three year post graduate diploma in Direction and Screenplay Writing.

Jamia Millia Islamia, Delhi: Master of Arts in Mass Communication.

Satyaji Ray Film and Televiison Institute, Kolkata: Three year post graduate programme in Cinema.

Xavier Institute of Communications, Mumbai: Diploma in Film, Television and Digital Video Production.


Film-making is a labourious art form, requiring a lot of hard work and discipline. “Making a film is not as simple as it looks. There are many variables at play.” says Chowdhury.  “A director has to juggle all of them.”

One should be able to make last-minute changes and at the same time stick to the budget. “Sometimes while shooting it may suddenly rain and you will have to change the location or reschedule the shoot. This can cost a lot and budgeting and planning skills are important,” he adds.

Another challenge is co-ordination and understanding of people. A director has to handle actors, (which can be a tough job) hone their skills and abilities the way it’s needed in the film. This requires an understanding of people and how to motivate them to give their best.

One should be willing to constantly learn and relearn everything they know. “You are always learning. You have to stay abreast of new technology and the latest in cinema and film-making,” adds Chowdhury.

Director’s speak

Aniruddha Roy Chowdhury fell in love with cinema when he watched his first film Haathi Mere Saathi, in a quaint single-screen cinema hall at the age of 10. But it took him a long time for his dream to be fulfilled. To begin with, Chowdhury, who directed Pink, had no idead how to get started in the industry. Coming from a middle-class background, Chowdhury was the first one in his family to venture into films. “There was no one to advise me or guide me. So I used to hang around at Tollygunge Studio in Kolkata daily to see what was happening there. At that time it was the only way I could get a peek into film-making,” says Chowdhury, quickly adding that he wouldn’t recommend this to others. Slowly, he began helping out on the sets and later took on full-time work as a film-executive at a private studio. “I slogged it out at the studio for five to six years. There was very little money, but I made it a point to familiarize myself with every aspect of film production, which is essential if you want to become a director,” adds Chowdhury.

With some experience under his belt, he moved onto making telefilms for Doordarshan, and there was no looking back after that. “I got to travel a lot and became involved in the film-making process and I realised that I have stories that I want to share with people (through films),” he adds.


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