What are different types of media?


The many ways people seek to communicate information to a large audience are known as the media. This communication can be in written, spoken, printed, or digital form. Throughout history, leaps in technology from the invention of printing to growth of the Internet have led to better, faster ways of reaching people. Today, information can be relayed around the globe in seconds.


The word “digital” refers to the way that information is turned into number-based codes before being sent or stored via electronics. The Internet is the key form of digital media, and has opened up mass media to the individual. Anyone with a blog or website can express opinions to a huge audience.


In this digital age, media content is available on many different platforms. News, films, and television programmers can be viewed on Smartphones, tablets, computers, and smart televisions. In addition, these digital devices also enable people to create as well as consume media content, via social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter.


Since the early broadcasts of the 1930s, television has brought news and entertainment to a wide audience. Today, television and films can be watched from home. DVDs, smart televisions, and online streaming services, such as Netflix, allow viewers to choose between thousands of shows, as well as record, pause, and rewind them.


In 1938, a radio dramatization of The War of the Worlds in the United States convinced many listeners that an actual Martian invasion was in progress. Today, radio stations still fill the airwaves with music, talk, news, and drama.


Media is a global business. The majority of the world’s media outlets are controlled by just a handful of international companies. Satellites orbiting Earth transmit television broadcasts around the world.


Published daily or weekly, newspapers contain news, information, feature stories, and advertising. China leads the world with more than 100 million copies circulating daily. Today, many papers are available to read online.


The content of a magazine does not usually date as quickly as that of a newspaper. Magazines may cover current events or they may be aimed at a specific audience, for example, movie or music fans.

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What's the longest movie ever invented?

While television and web series run for weeks together (divided into 30 to 40 minute-long episodes), films are usually no longer than two hours. However, Swedish filmmakers Erika Magnusson and Daniel Andersson challenged this practice in their film by making it 857 hours long. Imagine sitting through such a long film!

What's it about

An experimental film, "Logistics" lacks any conventional structure. It follows the life cycle of a pedometer, a tiny plastic electronic device used by people to count their steps and monitor their pulse rate. The film follows the pedometer's journey in reverse chronological order. It begins at a store in Stockholm, where the pedometer is sold and then traces it back to a factory in China's Bao'an distict, where it was manufactured.

What makes it special?

The film is shot in real time over 37 days and 37 nights, nonstop. This helps the viewers understand the actual time and distance taken by the product to reach from China to Sweden.

To get a first-hand experience, the filmmakers travelled with the product as it made its way aboard a large container ship going from Sweden to China, a freight train to the port of Gothenburg, then a truck to the port of Shenzhen and a factory in Bao'an.

It offers a peek into the realities of online shopping and global logistics. The film was exhibited in Stockholm in 2012.

Since it would be difficult to sit through such a long film, "Logistics" has been broken down into short, two-minute clips - one for each day of the journey on its website. You can watch it on logisticsartproject.com.

Did you know?

Longest films in the world

  • "Ambiance": Another Swedish film "Ambiance", which was scheduled to release in 2020, is 720 hours long, which is equivalent to a whopping 30 days. The film's trailer, which came out in April 2016, was seven hours and twenty minutes long!
  • "Hamlet": Kenneth Branagh's "Hamlet" released in 1996 lasts 242 minutes.
  • "Cleopatra": Joseph L. Mankiewicz's 1963 film "Cleopatra" is 248 minutes long.

Longest films in India

  • "Doon School Quintet" is a documentary series created by American visual anthropologist. It has a runtime of more than eight hours (494 minutes)
  • "Czechmate", a documentary by Shivendra Singh Dungarpur runs for 448 minutes (roughly seven and a half hours.)
  • "LOC Kargil": The 2003 film "LOC Kargil", based on the Kargil War and directed by J.P. Dutta is four hours and fifteen minutes long.

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Which is the longest running play?

Compared to films and television series, plays are usually not that popular today. However, there is one play that's an exception to this. Agatha Christie's "The Mousetrap" has been playing for the last 68 years. It is considered to be the longest running play - it opened in 1952 and ran till March 16, 2020, when all theatres were shut down due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

What's it about

"The Mousetrap" is a murder mystery set in "the present", which refers to postwar England (since the play came out during that time). It revolves around a murder near Monkswell Manor, a newly opened bed and breakfast. All of the guests harbour a secret and fit the description of the culprit.

It was written by Christie as a short radio play for Queen Mary's birthday. Titled "Three Blind Mice starring Barry Morse", it was first broadcast in May 1947. Later it was renamed and performed on the stage for the first time as "The Mousetrap" at the Theatre Royal, Nottingham in the U.K. on October 6, 1952.

In the long run

A few weeks later, it moved to the Ambassadors Theatre in West End London on November 25, 1952, where it continued to be performed for the next 22 years. Because of its soaring popularity, it transferred to the larger St Martin's Theatre, next door in 1974. The London run is said to have exceeded 28,000 performances. And, even Christie did not expect "The Mousetrap" to run for such a long time, according to her biography.

What makes it special?

Before the COVID-19 pandemic watching "The Mousetrap" had become a sort of ritual among many tourists visiting London. The original cast included some of the finest English actors such as Richard Attenborough (of the "Jurassic Park" fame), Mysie Monte and David Raven.

What keeps the audience hooked is the whodunnit plot and the twist in the tale. In fact, the performers are known to request the audience not to reveal the ending to those who have not watched it.

Interestingly, the clock on the mantle piece of the fireplace, one of the props on the stage, is the same one that has been used since the very first performance and has survived over the years.


  • During the Diamond Anniversary year of "The Mousetrap a touring production visited regional theatres for the first time in its history, whilst the London nun continued uninterrupted.
  • Christie gave the rights to the play to her grandson Mathew Prichard as a birthday present. Under the copyright, only one production of the play in addition to the West End production can be performed annually. What's more no film adaptation can be produced until the West End production has been closed for at least six months.

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What are OTT platforms?

OTT streaming platforms and digital news providers operating in the country have now been brought under the jurisdiction of the Information and Broadcasting Ministry. This means their content will be regulated by the I & B Ministry. But what are OTT platforms?

What does OTT stand for?

The acronym OTT stands for “Over the Top” service. OTT platforms are audio and video steaming services. They provide content on request over the Internet. Which means content of one’s choice can be watched by the individual consumer anytime anywhere, without the need for cable or DTH services. In order to view the content, the consumer needs a device (such as mobile, tablet, or laptop) that supports OTT and an internet connection. One major advantage with OTT is consumers pay for specific platforms they want access to. Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, Disney+ Hotstar, ALTBalaji, Zee5, VOOT, Jio Cinema, and Sony LIV are some of the OTT platforms available.

How do they work?

A relatively new form of entertainment, OTT platforms are classified as digital media, OTT platforms started out as content-hosting platforms but soon ventured into production, making films, serials, and documentaries. They buy the rights to the movies they wish to release or stream from the producers, or even produce them in collaboration with production houses. While most OTT platforms provide some content for free, they charge a monthly subscription for premium content. During the COVID-19 outbreak, many filmmakers turned to major OTT platforms to release their films instead of waiting for theaters to reopen. For instance, Jyotika’s “Ponmagal Vandhal” was the first Tamil film to release on an OTT platform, Amazon Prime Video, in May 2020 after theaters were shut due to the pandemic.

What are the new rules?

So far, OTT platforms have remained largely unregulated, providing diverse, versatile content to viewers. The Government tightened its grip on these streaming platforms following growing complaints of alleged objectionable content in some of the shows streamed. The new rules mandate these video streaming platforms to classify content into five age-specific categories, set up a grievance redressal mechanism, and appoint an officer to address grievances. The three-tier grievance resolution system begins with self-regulation by the content platform and ends at a government-appointed panel headed by a ministry official. The government-appointed committee will look at complaints that remain unresolved at the self-regulating level.

Quick Facts

  • There are over 40 OTT service providers in India.
  • India is currently the world’s fastest growing OTT market, and is all set to emerge as the world’s sixth-largest by 2024.
  • Over 22 million viewers in the country watched subscription-based video-on-demand content in 2020. This figure is projected to touch 57 million by 2022.
  • nexGTv was the first OTT mobile app to live-stream IPL cricket matches during the 2013 season.


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What is dramatic monologue?

“Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears;

I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.

The evil that men do lives after them;

The good is oft interred with their bones;

So let it be with Caesar…”

Strong and hard-hitting, you’re probably familiar with these lines from William Shakespeare’s well-known play, “Julius Caesar”. But did you know that this famous address by Marc Antony to the people of Rome is known as a monologue?

Dramatic monologues are popular literary devices. They are long speeches delivered by a single character on stage in a theatre production or on camera in a film. Monologues can be traced back to ancient Greek theatre. The term itself is derived from the Greek words monos (single) and legein (to speak).

Monologues offer a peek into the backstory of the character spoken about. Since a monologue turns the spotlight on a particular character, it offers that actor a unique opportunity to display his acting prowess.

But monologues are not to be confused with soliloquies, which are often internal reflections of a character on stage when alone. While a monologue is addressed to other characters and the audience, soliloquy as a device is employed when a character is talking to itself I and when it’s not meant to be heard by the other characters in the production. Soliloquy is a form of internal monologue. The “To Be or Not to Be” speech from Shakespeare’s “Hamlet” is arguably the best example of a soliloquy monologue.


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