What is ENT and what is the full form of ENT?

Otolaryngology is the oldest medical specialty in the United States. Otolaryngologists are physicians trained in the medical and surgical management and treatment of patients with diseases and disorders of the ear, nose, throat (ENT), and related structures of the head and neck. They are commonly referred to as ENT physicians.

Their special skills include diagnosing and managing diseases of the sinuses, larynx (voice box), oral cavity, and upper pharynx (mouth and throat), as well as structures of the neck and face. Otolaryngologists diagnose, treat, and manage specialty-specific disorders as well as many primary care problems in both children and adults.

The Ears-Hearing loss affects one in ten North Americans. The unique domain of otolaryngologists is the treatment of ear disorders. They are trained in both the medical and surgical treatment of hearing, ear infections, balance disorders, ear noise (tinnitus), nerve pain, and facial and cranial nerve disorders. Otolaryngologists also manage congenital (birth) disorders of the outer and inner ear.

The Nose-About 35 million people develop chronic sinusitis each year, making it one of the most common health complaints in America. Care of the nasal cavity and sinuses is one of the primary skills of otolaryngologists. Management of the nasal area includes allergies and sense of smell. Breathing through, and the appearance of, the nose are also part of otolaryngologists' expertise.

The Throat-Communicating (speech and singing) and eating a meal all involve this vital area. Also specific to otolaryngologists is expertise in managing diseases of the larynx (voice box) and the upper aero-digestive tract or esophagus, including voice and swallowing disorders.

Credit : Ear, Nose, Throat Associates

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What is oncologist?

Oncologists are doctors who diagnose and treat cancer. They often act as the main healthcare provider for someone with cancer—designing treatment plans, offering supportive care, and sometimes coordinating treatment with other specialists. 

A person will usually see an oncologist if their primary care physician suspects that they have cancer.

A primary care physician may use MRI and CT scans as well as blood tests to confirm their diagnosis. If these tests reveal signs of cancer, they will recommend that the person visits an oncologist.

During the first appointment, the oncologist may perform a physical exam and order additional blood work, imaging tests, or biopsies. They use these tests to determine the type and stage of the cancer, which helps them identify a person’s best treatment options.

An oncologist may introduce the person to other specialists as part of the treatment team. They may also provide a general timeframe of treatment.

The exact type of treatment a person receives depends on the type and stage of the cancer. For instance, a person who has one or more tumors may see a surgical oncologist for a biopsy.

Oncologists treat early stage cancer and noninvasive tumors with surgery or radiation therapy. Advanced cancers that have already spread to different areas of the body may require chemotherapy and other systemic treatments.

Oncologists not only diagnose cancer, they can also administer treatments and closely monitor disease progression. For example, surgical oncologists can perform biopsies and remove cancerous tissue, while radiation oncologists can administer different forms of radiation therapy to destroy cancer cells and shrink tumors.

A person can expect to work with a medical oncologist throughout the course of their cancer treatment.

After a person finishes treatment, they will attend regular follow-up appointments with their medical oncologist. During these appointments, the medical oncologist may run tests to check for signs of any physical or emotional problems related to the person’s cancer treatment.

Credit : Medical News Today

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What is pulmonologist?

A pulmonologist is a physician who specializes in the respiratory system. From the windpipe to the lungs, if your complaint involves the lungs or any part of the respiratory system, a pulmonologist is the doc you want to solve the problem.

Pulmonology is a medical field of study within internal medicine. These doctors go through the same training as an internist. They receive their degree, complete an internal medicine residency, then several years as a fellow focused primarily on pulmonology and often includes critical care and sleep medicine. After that, they have to take and pass specialty exams, and only then are they able to take patients as a Board-Certified pulmonologist.

While the respiratory system is a specialty in itself, pulmonologists can specialize even further. Some of these doctors focus on certain diseases, like asthma, pulmonary fibrosis and COPD, while others treat unique demographics, like pediatric patients or geriatric patients.

Because many lung and heart conditions present similar symptoms, pulmonologists often work with cardiologists while diagnosing patients. You'll also see them frequently in hospital settings. Patients that need life support or manual ventilation in order to breathe will have a pulmonologist overseeing that element of their care.

Credit : American Lung Association

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What does a haematologist specialize in?

A hematologist is a specialist in hematology, the science or study of blood, blood-forming organs and blood diseases.

The medical aspect of hematology is concerned with the treatment of blood disorders and malignancies, including types of hemophilia, leukemia, lymphoma and sickle-cell anemia. Hematology is a branch of internal medicine that deals with the physiology, pathology, etiology, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and prevention of blood-related disorders.

Becoming a hematologist requires 7 or more years of medical school and postgraduate training, before earning a board certification in internal medicine.

In addition, at least 2 years of specialty training, studying a range of hematological disorders, are required. Hematologists can later gain further certification in a subspecialty.

Hematologists work in various settings, including blood banks, pathology laboratories and private clinics. Specialists in this branch of medicine can choose to focus on specific topics within the field of hematology, such as lymphatic organs and bone marrow and may diagnose blood count irregularities or platelet irregularities. They are able to treat organs that are fed by blood cells, including the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus and lymphoid tissue.

Those in blood banks work to keep blood supplies safe and accessible, and may supervise labs that analyze blood samples and provide advice to organizations that provide advocacy services for patients with genetic blood disorders. These hematologists may also work with government agencies on education campaigns designed to inform the public of disorders, such as anemia.

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What is Endocrinologist?

Endocrinologists are doctors who specialize in glands and the hormones they make. They deal with metabolism, or all the biochemical processes that make your body work, including how your body changes food into energy and how it grows.

They may work with adults or kids. When they specialize in treating children, they're called pediatric endocrinologists.

Endocrinologists are licensed internal medicine doctors who have passed an additional certification exam.

They go to college for 4 years, then medical school for 4 more years. Afterward, they work in hospitals and clinics as residents for 3 years to get experience treating people. They'll spend another 2 or 3 years training specifically in endocrinology.

The whole process usually takes at least 10 years.

Credit : WebMD

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