How ants build nest?

Ants are some of the most skilful architects of the animal world, building a vast network of chambers under the ground. They have no blueprint to speak of, and no visible leader! They also work in total darkness.

An ant expert, Walter Tschinkel, made casts of ant colonies by pouring plaster, wax or molten metal into the hollows. He observed that most chambers were close to the surface, with smaller, more spaced-out rooms farther away. How ants gauge depth is not known, but Tschinkel thinks they can sense the carbon dioxide content of the soil. The amount of carbon dioxide increases as one goes deeper underground.


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How aptly-named bone-house wasp builds nest?

It might sound like something out of a horror story, but the aptly-named bone-house wasp builds its nest out of dead ants! It stuffs the ant bodies between the mud walls of its nest. Scientists discovered that the corpses not only provided insulation from heat and cold that the scent kept away a number of predators. Most animals avoid ant colonies because they are known to put up a ferocious defence against intruders.

Scientists theorized the reasoning behind these strange defense tactics and concluded that the wasps are using the ant carcasses as deterrents from possible predators. Ants emanate strong pheromones as communication mechanisms and these scents linger for a period of time after their death. The smell of the lifeless bodies serves as an adequate deterrent for animals attempting to eat nesting larvae.

This analysis results in the subsequent reasoning that female wasps must actively seek out and kill live ants as opposed to collecting their dead bodies. This theory was confirmed by the 13% lower parasitism rates in bone-house nest as compared to nests of similar species.


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How Australian leaf-curling spider builds nest?

We all know that spiders make webs but the Australian leaf-curling spider builds two additional houses to provide her with a den as well as a nursery for her babies. After making a web, the female chooses a suitable dead leaf. She lines the leaf with spider silk and curls it to form a little den that is closed at the top and open at the bottom. She hangs it in the centre of the web and waits inside for passing prey.

When she is expecting babies, she curls another leaf and hangs it away from the web in the midst of foliage.

The spider is also eco-aware! She uses not just fallen leaves but also discarded scraps of paper or other waste material to make her shelters.


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How montezuma oropendola of Central America builds nest?

The female of the montezuma oropendola of Central America builds one of the most elaborate nests in the animal kingdom. Using vines, the bird weaves a large basket-like nest that hangs from trees. The nests are anchored with the strongest vines, and bits of fibre and other vines are added as finishing touches. They are built in a group, forming a huge colony.

To keep away predators, nests are constructed on isolated trees and are suspended from the flimsy ends of the branches to deter monkeys. The oropendolas also take care to locate their nests inhabited by hornets!


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How solitary bees in Turkey and Iran build nest?


Four species of solitary bees in Turkey and Iran make a three-tiered shallow underground nest called a ‘flower sandwich’. The outside layer is made of petals, and then a lining of mud is applied, ending with a layer of petals for the innermost chamber. A store of nectar and pollen is deposited in his chamber for the larva to eat when it hatches. The egg is laid and the chamber is sealed by bending the petals forward and slathering the whole thing with mud! Each bee bower has room for just one egg.

The sandwich keeps the larva’s food moist. When the baby bee has eaten, it spins a cocoon and hibernates for ten months. By the time spring arrives, the chamber hardens like a nut, protecting the bee from predators and from collapsing inwards.

The bees emerge only to mate, build another nest and lay an egg, before they die.

Scientists found that the bees in Turkey pick pink, yellow, blue and purple petals while the ones in Iran favour only purple!


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