Who helps people travel?



Would you like to help people travel to exciting places? Then maybe a career in travel is for you! There are many different types of jobs in travel. Someday you may want to have a job like one of these:



Travel agents plan trips. They arrange airline flights and hotel rooms. Travel agents also arrange transport and sightseeing tours. They tell you when to catch a tour bus or how much the tickets will cost. They find out about fun things to do, places to see, and how to dress for the weather. They also provide maps and tour books to help you plan your trip.



With a computer terminal on one side and a phone on the other, airline reservation receptionists help people without a travel agent to choose the right flights. They help travellers to find flights that cost less or flights with no stops.



At hotels and motels, front-desk receptionists are responsible for collecting and giving out room keys. They also answer the phone and handle phone messages and mail for the guests.



Do you love food? Many fine chefs work in hotels, where they prepare fancy meals. Airline chefs prepare meals that are usually served on long flights.



Sometimes a travel career means working on water! If you enjoy boating, perhaps the job of cruise director is for you. Cruise ships are floating hotels. A cruise director plans fun activities on board the ship as well as on shore. For example, on the ship, people can take dance lessons or exercise classes, play board games, or watch a concert. On shore, people can shop, sight-see, or go to the beach. Chefs on cruise ships prepare delicious feasts for the passengers and get to travel the world at the same time!



Would you love to travel? Then perhaps you would like to be a flight attendant. Flight attendants serve food and drinks and help make people comfortable during a flight. They also help keep passengers safe in an emergency.



With lots of training, you could become an airline pilot. Pilots work out a plane's route and give the flight plan to the air-traffic controllers. They check the cockpit controls to make sure the plane is in good working order. Then they carry passengers safely where they want to go.



 



Picture Credit : Google


Which are the people who help in making maps?



There are many different kinds of maps and many different jobs for people who help create them. Let's take a look at some of the people who help make maps.



A person called a surveyor uses special instruments to measure distances, angles, and heights to work out where a place is and how big it is. Surveyors measure and record the positions of things and the shape of the earth's surface.



Some people photograph the land from an aeroplane. The aerial photographs are used by people called photogrammetrists to measure land areas, lakes, and other features of the earth. The photographs show wide areas of land and can give much more information than a person could gather while on the ground.



Cartographers use information from surveyors and photogrammetrists to make maps. Many cartographers use computers to draw an actual map. They add symbols and colours to help people understand all of the different kinds of information on a map.



A geographer studies how people and animals relate to the land. Some geographers study the places where people live. Others study the resources people use, such as water, land, and oil. Still others study rivers, mountains, and oceans. They put all of the information they find on maps to show other people.



 



Picture Credit : Google


What did the first map look like?



People have used maps for thousands of years. The earliest maps probably were simply scratches in the dirt. Early people made these scratches to show where to find water, food, or their caves. Later, people used nearby materials to make maps. Ancient Chinese people carved maps of their empire onto bamboo or stone or painted them on rolls of silk. Certain people of the Pacific Islands mapped out their region with palm sticks and shells. For a long time, in the Middle Ages, people thought the earth was flat. They believed you could fall off the edge of the world if you sailed too far out to sea. Explorers such as Christopher Columbus and Ferdinand Magellan changed these ideas. They collected information about countries outside Europe for European mapmakers.



When hot-air balloons were invented in the 1780's and aeroplanes in the 1900's, people finally got a bird's-eye view of the world. This helped them to make better maps.



Today, we use computers and photographs taken from aeroplanes and satellites to make maps of the world. We can even make maps for areas that nobody can get to.



 



Picture Credit : Google


What are longitude and latitude?



Look at a globe or a map of the world, Have you ever wondered why they have so many lines? There are no lines on the earth, so why are there lines on globes and maps?



The lines help people find places. The lines are something like city streets. When two friends meet at a corner, they are meeting where two streets cross. On a globe or map, the east-west lines cross the north-south lines. Every place can be found on a map by looking near where two of the lines cross.



The east-west lines measure how far north or how far south a place is from the equator. This measurement is called latitude. Because the lines are parallel-always the same distance apart they are called parallels of latitude. Latitude is measured in units called degrees. The symbol ° after each number is a degree sign. Latitude is always given as so many degrees north or south of the equator. The equator is 0° latitude.



The north-south lines measure distance east and west, or longitude. These lines are called meridians. A line called the prime meridian is 0° longitude. All other meridians are measured as so many degrees east or west of this line.



 



Picture Credit : Google


What is the equator?



Maps and globes have all kinds of signs and symbols. Often they have certain lines, too. Nearly every map and globe of the world has one very important line. It's called the equator. An imaginary line called the equator lies around the middle of the earth. The equator divides the earth into the Northern and Southern hemispheres, or halves. The word hemisphere means "half of a sphere or ball".



North of the equator is an imaginary line called the Tropic of Cancer. South of the equator is another line called the Tropic of Capricorn. Both lines are named after groups of stars. The areas between the equator and these two lines are called the tropics. Once a year the sun is directly over the Tropic of Cancer. That marks the first day of summer in the Northern Hemisphere. Once a year, the sun is directly over the Tropic of Capricorn. That marks the first day of summer in the Southern Hemisphere.



When it is summer where you live, where is it winter? To find out, look at a globe. The Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere are on opposite sides of the equator. For this reason, when it is the first day of summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it is the first day of winter in the Southern Hemisphere. And when it is the first day of winter in the Northern Hemisphere, it is the first day of summer in the Southern Hemisphere.



 



Picture Credit : Google