How do you improve writing skills?

Learning to elaborate short pieces of information is important for improving one's writing skills. Similarly, being able to understand the important aspects of any piece increases one's capacity to quickly grasp what has been said. And that's where making notes comes in

Here's a passage.

Almost all of us suffer from a headache some time or the other. For some people, headache is a regular part of life. The most important step to cope with headaches is to identify the type of headache one is suffering from. The first type of headache is called a tension headache where there is a feeling of tightness around the head along with pain in neck and shoulders. It is caused due to long hours of working on computers, driving, or watching television.

The second type of headache is called the migraine headache, where there is pain on one side of the head, along with nausea, vomiting, and irritability. The pain worsens with noise and bright light. Certain food items such as coffee, tea, chocolate, and smoking can cause migraines.

The third type of headache is caused due to problems in vision, the symptom being inability to read books or see objects. It is caused by deficiencies, watching television, computers, or hereditary reasons.

If the headache troubles you often, visit the doctor. The doctor will study the cause, time, and what triggers it, and tell you what to do after a proper diagnosis. Most headaches can be treated by avoiding certain foods, avoiding long hours on computer or television, doing exercise, and eating nutritious food. Vision problems can be corrected with suitable glasses.

Notes of the passage

Identification of types of headache

1. Tension headache


  • Tightness around head
  • Pain in neck and shoulders


  • Long hours of working on computers or watching television
  • Long hours of driving

2. Migraine headache


  • Pain on one side of head
  • Nausea, vomiting, and irritability


  • Noise and bright light
  • Drinking coffee, tea, eating chocolate, and smoking

3. Headache due to vision problems


  • Difficulty in reading
  • Difficulty in seeing objects


  • Watching television
  • Working on computers
  • Deficiencies
  • Hereditary reasons


  • Avoiding certain foods
  • Avoiding long hours watching television or working on computers
  • Wearing glasses for vision problems
  • Taking nutritious food
  • Doing exercise

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What are phrases and clauses?


A phrase is a group of words that can act as an adjective, an adverb, or a noun in a sentence. A phrase does not contain a finite verb, but may contain a non-finite verb, a participle, an infinitive, or a gerund. It does not make complete sense but can have meaning through its relation to some part of the sentence in which it stands.

Noun phrase

A group of words that does the function of a noun in a sentence is called a noun phrase.

Example: His sudden disappearance is a mystery.

Adjective phrase

A group of words that does the function of an adjective in a sentence is called an adjective phrase.

Example: My neighbour is a man of had temper

Adverbs phrase

A group of words that does the function of an adverb in a sentence is called an adverb phrase

Example: He behaved in a foolish manner

Verb phrase

A verb phrase contains one of the three non-finites participle, gerund, or infinitive and its objects or modifiers.

Example: You must work hard to get good marks in the exam (infinitive)

He enjoys watching movies at weekends (gerund)

Having done the work, he decided to rest (participle)

Preposition phrase

A prepositional phrase contains a preposition, its objects, and modifiers of the object, if any.

Example: The book is on the table.


A cause is a group of words with a finite verb. It forms part of a longer sentence. A clause that does the work of a noun is called a noun clause A clause that does the work of an adjective is called an adjective clause. A clause that does the work of an adverb is called an adverb clause.

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What is letter writing and web charts in communication skills?

Letter writing

Letters are of three kinds-personal letters, official letters, and applications. Personal letters are written to friends or relations in an informal style. Official letters are written by people to government officials, railway officials, municipal authorities, banks, colleges, business organisations, etc. to make complaints, suggestions, enquiries, place orders, etc. Letters to newspapers are written to express one's opinion about a matter of public interest or highlight a specific problem. All official letters are written in a formal style.

Here's an example of a letter of complaint that can be sent as an e-mail. It is a letter to the municipal corporation about the appalling condition of roads in a particular area.

Subject: Poor condition of roads in Ram Nagar.

Dear Municipal Mayor.

I'm xxxxx from Ram Nagar. This is to bring to your notice the appalling condition of the roads in our area. The roads are full of pot holes and ditches. and the condition becomes worse during the rainy season. It is becoming increasingly difficult for people to drive or walk on these roads. Added to this, there is the problem of poor lighting in these streets at night. I hope the authorities concerned will look into the matter and take steps to improve the condition of these roads.

Yours faithfully,


Web charts

Visuals and information such as pie charts and web charts help students transform them into coherent paragraphs Here's a web chart and a resultant paragraph describing the causes of road accidents.

The web chart represents the causes of road accidents. There are many causes but of late, the major cause is underage driving Speeding beyond limits is yet another reason, while talking on mobiles and drunken driving are other important causes. Though there are strict laws, they are not enforced properly. As a result there is no fear People ignore traffic rules and in their hurry to reach their destinations, drive on the wrong side, causing accidents. It is also observed that users of two-wheelers, three-wheelers or even four-wheelers are not trained properly. They are not aware the dos and don'ts. They do not care to wear helmets or seat belts. People manage to get licences without proper training. The officials of Road Transport Office (RTO) turn a blind eye to this. Last but not the least, bad roads and badly maintained vehicles also cause accidents. The government must impose heavy fines and cancel the licences of people who cause accidents. People should also cooperate and follow all traffic rules for their own safety.

Picture Credit : Google

What is essay writing communication and information transfer communication?

Spoken and written words are extremely important for any form of communication. There are different forms of communication, and each one has a unique purpose. Let's take a look at two such forms of communication

Essay writing

An essay is a written composition containing an expression of one's personal experiences, opinions, or ideas on a given subject. There are many types of essays.

  • Narrative essays talk about events and experiences.
  • Descriptive essays include description of a person, place, thing, process, or procedure.

Here is a sample of a narrative essay.

My parents gifted me a bicycle when I was five years old. I wasn't able to ride it but I was eager to learn it. All my friends had bicycles and they rode them in the evenings. My parents promised to buy me a bicycle only if I scored well in my examinations. I worked hard, scored good marks, and true to their words. my parents got me a bicycle. Now the problem was how I would learn to ride it. My friend who lives next door agreed to teach me. She took me to a playground and taught me how to balance myself and use the pedals. She would hold the cycle behind and run along with me. Slowly, I learnt how to ride it without any help. One day, however, I went into the street with the bicycle. There were many vehicles. In an attempt to avoid hitting a bike, I went and hit a wall. I fell down in a puddle of water. I had hurt myself badly. Some people helped me out and took me home. However, I did not lose heart. I tried to be careful and continued to practise. Soon, I became an expert in cycling! I use a bicycle often because it is pollution-free. Riding it helps me keep fit. And it's a pleasure too!

Information transfer

An information transfer activity involves putting spoken or written texts into another form such as a chart, grid, picture, table, or diagram. The interpretation of texts, diagrams, or tables is a skill that is very useful both in academic and everyday life. It also includes looking at a table, grid, picture, or a chart and answering questions related to it.

Here is a sample of a pie chart.

The pie chart shows how Internet users between the ages 16 and 30 prefer to access it. It shows the results of the survey in which they were asked about their preferred devices for accessing the Internet. The participants in the survey mentioned four devices: smartphone, laptop, tablet, and desktop computer. And this is how it can be interpreted. From the pie chart it is clear that a large number of participants prefers to use smart phones. Next comes laptops. A desktop computer and a tablet are the least preferred devices. In conclusion, it can be said that portable devices such as mobiles and laptops are the most popular choices for accessing the Internet outside their homes. Desktop computers do not seem to be greatly preferred as it is not mobile. In future, we can probably expect to see more and more people accessing the Internet with smart phones rather than other devices.

Picture Credit : Google

What are adjectives?

Adjectives are words that describe a noun or a pronoun in a sentence. Let's take a closer look at adjectives

Points to remember

  • Adjectives of quality describe the size, shape, colour, taste, and touch. They also describe qualities and feelings.

Examples: Long, black sweet, etc

  • Compound adjectives are adjectives that are made up of two or more words, usually with hyphens (-) between them.

Examples: Open-minded, well-mannered light-hearted, etc

  • Adjectives are formed by adding different suffies such as-al ful, -ive. -less, etc

Examples: Seasonal, respectful, attractive, useless, etc

  • Some adjectives are formed from existing words, including nouns.

Examples: Proud (from the noun pride); long (length): young (youth): belief (believe); etc.

  • Adjectives of quantity express an approximate quantity

Examples: Much, mast, whole, etc.

  • Adjectives of number express the exact number.

Examples: One, two, second third, etc.

  • When two nouns are compared, comparative adjectives are used.

Examples: It is easier to walk than drive through the forest the train journey takes longer than air travel

  • When more than two nouns are compared superlative adjectives are used.

Examples: The blue whale is the largest animal: Goa is the smallest State in India.

Did you know?

  • Some adjectives come in pairs!

Examples: The speech was short and sweet: Slow and steady wins the race:

I am sick and tired of eating the same food.

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