How old is the Kallanai dam?

Kallanai Dam or the Grand Anicut is one of the oldest dams in the world still in use. It is the fourth oldest water diversion or water regulator structure in the world. Built in the 2nd century AD across the Cauvery River in Tiruchirapalli district, Tamil Nadu, by King Karikala of the Chola Dynasty, the dam is made of unhewn stone and is 1,080 feet long and 66 feet wide. The dam was remodelled by the British during the 19th century. The area irrigated by the ancient irrigation network is about 28,000 hectares. By the early 20th century, the irrigated area had been increased to about 400,000 hectares.

The unique design and its effective functioning amazed the British in 1800s many years later and their military engineers were asked to study the river and the ancient dam. With an aim to increase irrigated area the British built another dam downstream by replicating the one made by Karikalan Chola. The Lower Anicut was built by Sir Aurthur Cotton in 19th century on a major tributary of River Kaveri.

While the tourists flock to gardens and bridge near Lower Anicut, the original Kallanai dam still stands strong and functions with as much effectiveness as 20 centuries ago. A larger than life statue of Karikalan atop a majestic elephant sits in a grandiose memorial structure, the Karikalan Chola Manimandapam. A statue of Sir Aurthur Cotton who built the second dam modelled after Kallanai dam has also been erected on the bridge.

Successful engineering, as they say, is all about understanding how things break or fail. It was this understanding of devastation that the fierce river waters could wreak that inspired ancient engineers to look at means to harness and prevent destruction. Indeed the story of civilization is in a sense the story of engineering….the long and arduous struggle to make the forces of nature work for man’s good.

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Across which river does Mullaperiyar Dam lie?



Mullaperiyaru Dam is a masonry gravity dam on the Periyar River in the Indian state of Kerala. It is located 881 m (2,890 ft) above mean sea level, on the Cardamom Hills of the Western Ghats in Thekkady, Idukki District of Kerala, South India. It was constructed between 1887 and 1895 by John Pennycuick and also reached in an agreement to divert water eastwards to the Madras Presidency area (present-day Tamil Nadu). It has a height of 53.6 m (176 ft) from the foundation, and a length of 365.7 m (1,200 ft).



The Periyar river which flows westward of Kerala in to the Arabian sea was diverted eastwards to flow towards the Bay of Bengal to provide water to the arid rain shadow region of Madurai in Madras Presidency which was in dire need of a greater supply of water than the small Vaigai River could provide. The dam created the Periyar Thekkady reservoir, from which water was diverted eastwards via a tunnel to augment the small flow of the Vaigai River. The Vaigai was dammed by the Vaigai Dam to provide a source for irrigating large tracts around Madurai. Initially the dam waters were used only for the irrigation of 68,558 ha (169,411 acres).



The Periyar National Park in Thekkady, a protected area of Kerala, is located around the dam's reservoir, the 26 km2 (10 sq mi) Periyar lake. 62 different kinds of mammals have been recorded in Periyar, including many threatened ones. Periyar is a highly protected tiger reserve and hosts 35 tigers above two-years of age as of January 2017 in the reserve. Declared an elephant reserve on 2 April 2002, the population of Indian elephants in 2005 was estimated at 1100, however Periyar suffers greatly from poaching of elephant being the worst affected of South Indian sanctuaries.



 



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Which mountain range forms the background for the Malampuzha Dam?



Malampuzha Dam is the largest dam and reservoir in Kerala[2], located near Palakkad, in the state of Kerala in South India, built post independence by the then Madras state. Situated in the scenic hills of the Western Ghats in the background it is a combination of a masonry dam with a length of 1,849 metres and an earthen dam with a length of 220 metres making it the longest dam in the state.



The dam project was begun in 1949 and completed in 1955. foundation stone for the project was laid on 27 March 1949, by the then Public Works Minister of Madras State, Sri M. Bhaktavatsalam as Palakkad was a part of the Madras Presidency during those times. The dam was constructed in record time, and on 9 October 1955, the then Chief Minister of Madras State, Sri. K Kamaraj, inaugurated the dam. The total catchment area is 145 square kilometres, while the reservoir has a capacity of 8000 cubic meters of water. The canal systems serve to irrigate farmland while the reservoir provides drinking water to Palakkad and surrounding villages.[4] The dam was constructed by the Madras government but upon the Creation of linguistically reorganized states ,The Malabar District encompossing the Dam became a part of the Kerala State.



This is a beautifully laid garden with a variety of brilliant and colourful flowers. It has the meticulously manicured grass lawn, the marvellous meadows and fabulous fountains displaying an orchestrated water show. The site of the Malampuzha Dam lies in the cauldron formed by the Western Ghats. The great stretch of the serene lake formed by the dam provides boating facilities. During the cool dark night, numerous lights sparkle like bright pearls arranged on a black sheet of cloth. This is a rare beauty. These lights are usually illuminated only in the weekends.



 



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Across which river does the Banasura Sagar Dam lie?



The Banasura Sagar Dam traps the waters of the Karamanathodu, a tributary of the Kabini River. The goal of the project is to support the Kakkayam Hydro electric power project and satisfy the demand for irrigation and drinking water in a region known to have water shortages in seasonal dry periods.



In the dam's reservoir there is a set of islands that were formed when the reservoir submerged the surrounding areas. The islands with the Banasura hills are in the background view. It is the largest earth dam in India and the second largest of its kind in Asia. The dam is made up of massive stacks of stones and boulders.



The Banasura Sagar Dam is located 21 km from Kalpetta, in Wayanad District of Kerala in the Western Ghats. It is the largest earthen dam in India and the second largest in Asia and a starting point for hikes into the surrounding mountains. It is an important tourist attraction. Banasura Sagar Dam is at the foot of the Banasura Hill.



 



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The ornamental Brindavan Gardens is attached to which dam constructed across the Cauvery?



The KRS dam is located across Kaveri River in Mandya district of Karnataka. The dam is surrounded by a beautiful ornamental garden known as Brindavan Gardens. The KRS dam was built across the river Kaveri in the year 1924.



The water released from this dam is further used as an important source of water in the state of Tamil Nadu, which has its own Mettur dam in the Salem district.



The dam is named for the then ruler of the Mysore Kingdom, Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. The Chief Engineer, Sir M. Vishveswaraya engineered the construction of the dam during the Wadeyar kings regime in 1932.



The region of Mysore and especially Mandya had historically been dry and had witnessed mass migration to adjoining areas in the hot summers. A severe drought in 1875–76 had wiped out one-fifth of the population of the Kingdom of Mysore. Crop failures were common due to lack of water for irrigation. The Kaveri River was seen as a potential source of irrigation water for the farmers in and around Mysore in the erstwhile Kingdom of Mysore.



Foundation Stone to dam was laid on 11 November 1911. The dam was built across river Kaveri in 1924. It is the main source of water for the districts of Mysore. The water is used for irrigation in Mysore and Mandya, and it is the main source of drinking water for all of Mysore, Mandya and almost the whole of Bengaluru city, the capital of Karnataka. The water released from this dam flows into the state of Tamil Nadu and is stored in Mettur dam in the Salem district.



 



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