Before Moscow, St. Petersburg was the capital of which country?

From early modern times until the present, Russia (temporarily extended to the USSR) had two capital cities: Moscow and Petersburg. Moscow was the original capital, it was succeeded by Petersburg from the beginning of the 18th century. 

The capital of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) until the union dissolved in 1991, Moscow attracted world attention as a centre of communist power; indeed, the name of the seat of the former Soviet government and the successor Russian government, the Kremlin (Russian: Kreml), was a synonym for Soviet authority. The dissolution of the U.S.S.R. brought tremendous economic and political change, along with a significant concentration of Russia’s wealth, into Moscow. Area 414 square miles (1,035 square km).

Russia’s Soviet past collides with its capitalist present everywhere in the country, but nowhere is this contrast more visible than in Moscow. Vladimir Ilich Lenin’s Mausoleum remains intact, as do many dreary five-story apartment buildings from the era of Nikita Khrushchev’s rule (the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s), yet glitzy automobiles and Western-style supermarkets, casinos, and nightclubs are equally visible. Many Orthodox churches, as well as some synagogues and mosques, have been restored, Moscow’s novel theatres have reclaimed leadership in the dramatic arts, and traditional markets have been revived and expanded. These markets, which under the Soviets were known as kolkhoz (collective-farm) markets and sold mainly crafts and produce, are now more sophisticated retail establishments.

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Before Brasilia became Brazil’s capital in the mid-19th century, which city was the country’s capital?

Rio de Janeiro is easily the most iconic city in Brazil. It was a bustling hub and most active port in the ‘New World’ and served as the capital of Brazil for nearly 200 years until the creation of the current capital, Brasilia, in 1961. 

As the Spanish conquered their way down the western half of South America, the Portuguese had a blank map in regards to the east and claimed the resource dense area, which became the Portuguese Empires largest state, Brazil. As the centrally and strategically located port of Rio de Janeiro began to grow, the primary capital of Salvador was stripped of its crown which was handed, in 1763, to Rio de Janeiro.

In spring of 1808, Prince John and the Portuguese Royal Court arrived in Rio de Janeiro, and then in December, as the year came to a close, Prince John created the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, elevating the status, rank and administrative independence of Brazil, an enormous foundation towards gaining future independence. Now, with all the nations sitting on the same pedestal, and the Royal Family being situated in Rio de Janeiro, the city became the capital of the Kingdom, and the Royal Family remained there until Napoleon’s defeat in 1814. It was not until 1821, that the Royal Family departed Brazil for Lisbon, but by this time migration from Portugal had increased, the population of Rio de Janeiro had grown significantly and the city had transformed itself into an economic capital in South America.

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Egypt is preparing to move to what is simply known as the New Administration Capital from which existing capital city?

The new capital of Egypt is yet to be given a name. A competition was launched on the new capital's website to choose a new name and logo for the city, noting that a jury of specialists were formed to evaluate the proposals submitted to list and determine the best among all the proposals. Though, no official results have yet been announced by the Egyptian Government.

The new city is to be located 45 kilometres (28 miles) east of Cairo and just outside the Second Greater Cairo Ring Road, in a currently largely undeveloped area halfway to the seaport city of Suez. According to the plans, the city will become the new administrative and financial capital of Egypt, housing the main government departments and ministries, as well as foreign embassies. On 700 square kilometres (270 sq mi) total area, it would have a population of 6.5 million people, though it is estimated that the figure could rise to seven million.

Officially, a major reason for the undertaking of the project was to relieve congestion in Cairo, which is already one of the world's most crowded cities, with the population of Greater Cairo expected to double in the next few decades. Cairo, for comparison, has a population of nearly 20 million.

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In 1991, which city became Nigeria’s new capital?

Abuja is the capital and eighth most populous city of Nigeria. Located in the centre of the country within the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), it is a planned city built mainly in the 1980s. It replaced Lagos, the country's most populous city, as the capital on 12 December 1991

In 2006 Abuja had a population of 776,298 people.  In some areas the population is growing at about 30 percent each year. The FCT occupies 2,824 square miles and the city is 1,180 feet above sea level. The FCT is bordered on the northeast by Kano state, to the east and south by Plateau state, southwest by Kogi state, and to the west and northwest by Niger state. The Benue and Niger Rivers, the two major rivers in the nation, are also close to the FCT. Abuja is located 300 miles northeast of Lagos, Nigeria’s former capital and still the nation’s largest city.

The capital was moved from Lagos to Abuja due to political divisions, geographical constraints, and ethnic tensions.  Lagos, which was designated the capital shortly after the British established the unified colony of Nigeria in 1900, was situated in the southwestern corner of the nation in a region heavily dominated by Yoruba Christians.  By the 1970s, Lagos, with well over four million people and built on multiple islands, had little land available for expansion.  Also, Muslim political leaders who dominated the national government, wanted a capital closer to their center of influence, the heavily Islamic North.

Abuja was chosen because of its centralized location, less humid climate, and because as a new, planned city it would have the opportunity to experience an orderly expansion.  It was also viewed as a neutral site on the cultural, religious, and political border between the mostly Christian South and the Muslim North.

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Islamabad has been Pakistan’s capital since the 1960s. Which city was its capital before that?

Newly-independent Pakistan had chosen Karachi as its capital in 1947. However, a decade later, President Ayub Khan chose to move the capital nearly 1,500 kilometres to the north, to the new city of Islamabad. Though reasons for the change weren’t specified, it’s believed Ayub wanted to remain close to Rawalpindi, where the military headquarters are located. Today, Islamabad’s citizens are the country’s most prominent and well-heeled, and the province is more affluent and elite than any other region of the country.

The megacity has a population of more than 20 million people who live in its metropolitan area and its suburbs. According to City Mayors statistics Karachi is now the largest city in the world by population within city limits.
Spoken language is Urdu; English is in use.

Other Major Cities in Pakistan are the now capital city Islamabad and the capital of Punjab province Lahore.

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