Which type of cancer treatment is Jane Cooke Wright associated with?

Jane Cooke Wright (1919 – 2013) was an American medical researcher who did pioneer work in chemotherapy. Her contributions to oncology revolutionised cancer treatment across the world.

Louis Tompkins Wright was a well-known surgeon and medical researcher and was the first African-American to be a staff physician at a New York City hospital. Both Jane Cooke Wright and her younger sister, Barbara, followed in the family tradition and became doctors, overcoming both gender and racial bias.

After medical school, Wright worked in Bellevue Hospital (1945–46) and Harlem Hospital (1947–48). Her interest in chemotherapy drugs was sparked when she joined her father in research at the Harlem Cancer Research Center in 1949. Jane Wright studied the reactions of different drugs and chemotherapy techniques on tumours. At the time, chemotherapy was still a nascent area. There was scepticism about chemotherapy and it was not widely practised. Jane Wright’s research transformed that.

Jane Wright pioneered the use of the drug methotrexate to treat breast cancer (in 1951) and skin cancer (1960). She is also credited with developing the technique of using human tissue culture to test the effects of potential drugs on cancer cells. Adjusting treatment according to the individual was an idea forming the basis of much of Wright’s research. Wright also developed non-surgical methods to deliver drugs to tumours, even those deep within the body, using catheter systems.

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Who was Jane Cooke Wright?

Jane Cooke Wright was an American medical researcher who did pioneer work in chemotherapy. Her contributions to oncology revolutionised cancer treatment across the world.

Jane Wright was born in New York City in 1919 into a family of physicians. Her father, Louis Tompkins Wright, and her paternal grandfather, Ceah Ketcham Wright, were doctors. Louis Tompkins Wright was a well-known surgeon and medical researcher and was the first African American to be a staff physician at a New York City hospital. Both Jane Cooke Wright and her younger sister, Barbara, followed in the family tradition and became doctors, overcoming both gender and racial bias.

After medical school, Wright worked in Bellevue Hospital (1945-46) and Harlem Hospital (1947-48). Her interest in chemotherapy drugs was sparked when she joined her father in research at the Harlem Cancer Research Center in 1949. Jane Wright studied the reactions of different drugs and chemotherapy techniques on tumours. At the time, chemotherapy was still a nascent area. There was scepticism about chemotherapy and it was not widely practised. Jane Wright's research transformed that.

Jane Wright pioneered the use of the drug methotrexate to treat breast cancer (in 1951) and skin cancer (1960). She is also credited with developing the technique of using human tissue culture to test the effects of potential drugs on cancer cells. Adjusting treatment according to the individual was an idea forming the basis of much of Wright's research. Wright also developed non-surgical methods to deliver drugs to tumours, even those deep within the body, using catheter systems.

Following Dr. Louis Wright's death in 1952, Jane Wright was appointed head of the Harlem Cancer Research Foundation. In 1955, she became the director of cancer chemotherapy research at New York University Medical Center and its affiliated Bellevue and University hospitals.

In 1971, Jane Wright became the first woman president of the New York Cancer Society. She retired from the New York Medical College and active cancer research in 1987. During her life time, she had published 135 scientific papers and written nine books.

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Which is the instrument that Jagadish Chandra Bose developed to show that planets have feelings?

A crescograph is a device for measuring the growth in plants. It was invented in the early 20th century by Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose.

The Bose crescograph uses a series of clockwork gears and a smoked glass plate to record the movement of the tip of a plant (or its roots). It was able to record at magnifications of up to 10,000 times through the use of two different levers. One lever records at 100 times magnification while the other lever takes that image and records at another 100 times magnification. Marks are made on the plate at intervals of a few seconds, demonstrating how the rate of growth varies under varying stimuli. Bose experimented with temperature, chemicals, gases, and electricity.

The electronic crescograph plant movement detector is capable of measurements as small as 1/1,000,000 of an inch. However, its normal operating range is from 1/1000 to 1/10,000 of an inch. The component which actually measures the movement is a differential transformer along with a movable core hinged between two points. A micrometer is used to adjust and calibrate the system. It can record plant growth, magnifying a small movement as much as 10,000,000 times.

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Who was Jagadish Chandra Bose?

Jagadish Chandra Bose was a polymath whose two major works came from two distinct fields of science electromagnetism and plant physiology. He was considered the first modem and experimental scientist of India.

J.C. Bose was born in 1858 in Bengal Presidency (which is now a place in Bangladesh). Bose graduated from St. Xavier's College. Calcutta, and went on to do Natural Science from Cambridge University. He conducted researches with the English physical scientist Lord Rayleigh at Cambridge and returned to India in 1885. He found himself a join at the Presidency College, Calcutta, on a temporary basis, where he was subjected to racial discrimination. Later he was made permanent and was given a dingy laboratory to conduct his experiments in. Colonial British did not encourage original research by Indians.

Inventions in wireless waves

Working from here, Bose followed up on German physicist Heinrich Hertzs discovery of electromagnetic waves. Bose came up with the Millimetre Waves, the shortest radiowaves of 5mm. In 1895, Bose demonstrated wireless transmission of electromagnetic waves to the public in Calcutta. And the world started taking notice of this modern scientist from India. In 1899, Bose came up with another development the iron-mercury-iron coherer, a primitive form of radio signal detector, and presented it at the Royal Society, London. Years later Marconi transmitted radio waves across the Atlantic using Bose's coherer. Bose also has the distinction of using a semiconductor junction to detect radio waves for the first time.

Plants have feelings too

From electromagnetic waves, Jagdish Chandra Bose's attention turned to plant biology. In 1901, he showed that plants are also sensitive to and temperature. Bose demonstrated how poison could create human-like suffering in plants using an instrument he developed-crescograph. He had a plant dipped up to its stem in a vessel containing a poisonous bromide solution. When the crescograph with the plant was plugged in. people could view how the lighted spot on a screen showed the movements of the plant which beat, vibrated and stopped, corresponding to the plant's suffering and death.

Legacy

Bose founded a research institute - Bose Institute in Calcutta in 1971. The same year, he was knighted by the British government. In 2009, on his 150th birth anniversary, Bose was honoured as one of the Fathers of Radio Science.

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Who was Rosalind Franklin?

Rosalind Franklin is an English chemist, best known for her role in the discovery of the structure of DNA, a constituent of chromosomes that serves to encode genetic information. Her work on the X-ray diffraction images of DNA, particularly Photo 51, led to the discovery of the double helix shape of DNA. Since Nobel Committee does not recognise work posthumously, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962 went to Francis Crick, James Watson, and Maurice Wilkins, who based their work on her data.

Rosalind was a topper and an all-rounder in school. Her interests were in maths, sports and languages. Born to a prominent British Jewish family in 1920, Franklin studied the Natural Sciences Tripos at Newnham College, Cambridge, from which she graduated in 1941. She joined the University of Cambridge physical chemistry laboratory as a research fellow. Since this was during World War II, she worked on the porousity of coal for fuel purposes and other wartime devices

After finishing her work on DNA, Franklin led pioneering work at Birkbeck, University of London, on the molecular structures of the Tobacco Mosaic virus (TMV), an RNA virus that infects tobacco plants. Her work provided new insights into the structure of viruses.

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