Kathleen Lonsdale proved the flat structure of which organic chemical compound?

In 1923, W.H. Bragg left for the Royal Institution in London and Kathleen went with him. It was around this time that X-ray crystallography began to be used to look inside organic molecules — carbon atoms with other elemental atoms attached. The process involved a lot of calculations, and Kathleen saw the need for crystallography look-up tables that would greatly speed things up. Together with her lab-mate, they created the Astbury-Yardley tables, which formed the basis for what became the International Tables for X-ray Crystallography.

While at the Royal Institution, Kathleen met Thomas Lonsdale, an engineering student who would become her husband. They married in 1927 and then moved to Leeds to accommodate his new job. Meanwhile, Kathleen joined the University of Leeds’ physics department and worked on X-ray diffraction.

It was at the University of Leeds that Kathleen made a name for herself. Chemists had been arguing about the atomic structure of benzene for decades. In 1865, chemist August Keuklé had a dream that included a vision of the structure of benzene. He saw atoms dancing around and transforming into an ouroboros — a serpent swallowing its own tail. Kathleen was given hexamethylbenzene crystals to study, and in 1929 she was able to prove conclusively that the benzene molecule is in fact a flat ring. This was a remarkable achievement, especially considering that all the calculations had to be done by hand. And as if that wasn’t enough of a contribution, Kathleen was also the first to apply Fourier methods to X-ray pattern analysis as she solved the structure for another type of benzene — hexachlorobenzene.

Kathleen’s first child, Jane, arrived later that same year. The family soon moved back to London and had two more children in 1931 and 1934 — Nancy and Stephen. Although moving and raising children greatly disrupted Kathleen’s work, she kept her head in the crystallography game, doing calculations of structure factors by hand whenever she had the time. Soon, Sir Bragg shared good news: he’d been given an allowance so that Kathleen could hire a nanny and come back to work at the Royal Institution.

When Kathleen returned, there were no X-ray instruments available to her. She was able to secure a large electromagnet instead, so she pursued another interest — determining the magnetic properties of benzene-like compounds known as aromatics. By doing this, she was able to establish proof of molecular orbitals, but another chemist, Linus Pauling, beat her to publication.

Credit : Hack a Day

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Who was Kathleen Lonsdale?

Kathleen Lonsdale was an Irish crystallographer and a pioneer in the use of X-rays to study crystals. Using X-ray diffraction, she proved that the benzene ring is flat.

Kathleen Lonsdale was born in 1903 in Newbridge, County Kildare, Ireland. She studied at Woodford County High School for Girls. She excelled in mathematics and science. However, she had to attend classes in physics, chemistry and mathematics at the boys' high school because the girls school didn't offer these subjects. She earned her Bachelor of Science degree from Bedford College for Women in 1922, graduating in physics with an M.Sc. from University College London in 1924. In 1924, she joined the crystallography research team headed by William Henry Bragg at the Royal Institution. Bragg was a pioneer of X-ray diffraction. After her marriage, she moved to the University of Leeds Department of Physics, where she continued to work on X-ray diffraction and studied the structure of benzene. In 1929, her results showed that the benzene ring was flat, something that chemists had been arguing about for 60 years. She developed an X-ray technique to obtain the accurate measurement (to seven figures) of the distance between carbon atoms in diamond. She also applied crystallographic techniques to medical problems.

She became professor of chemistry at University College, London, in 1949. In 1956, she was made Dame of the British Empire

During her career she attained several firsts for female scientists, including being one of the first two women elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1945 (along with bacterial chemist Marjory Stephenson), first woman tenured professor at University College London, first woman president of the International Union of Crystallography, and first woman president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.

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Which country knighted Carl Linnaeus?

Carolus Linnaeus is one of the giants of natural science. He devised the formal two-part naming system we use to classify all lifeforms.

A well-known example of his two-part system is the dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex; another is our own species Homo sapiens.

Linnaeus pushed the science of biology to new heights by describing and classifying our own human species in precisely the same way as he classified other lifeforms. Other people at the time demanded that humans must be regarded as a special case in biology, different from animals.

Carolus Linnaeus was knighted by the King of Sweden in 1761 and took the nobleman’s name of Carl von Linne.

He died at the age of 70, on 10 January, 1778, after suffering a stroke. He was survived by his wife Sara, and five children. Two of the couple’s other children died when they were very young.

Linnaeus died on his farm about 6 miles (10 km) from Uppsala. He had bought the farm 20 years before his death. The farm was called Hammarby. Linnaeus cultivated his own private gardens at Hammarby and had hoped to be buried there. In fact he was buried in Uppsala.

Today Hammarby is a museum which features exhibitions of Linnaeus’s work, his botanical collections, and a garden and a park where his love of the natural world is reflected.

Credit : Famous Scientists 

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Which was the most famous book written by Carl Linnaeus, where he introduces binomial nomenclature?

A few days after arriving in the Dutch town of Harderwijk in May 1735, Linnaeus completed his examinations and received his medical degree following the submission of a thesis he had prepared in advance on the topic of intermittent fevers. Linnaeus and Sohlberg then journeyed to Leiden, where Linnaeus sought patronage for the publication of his numerous manuscripts. He was immediately successful, and his Systema Naturae (“The System of Nature”) was published only a few months later with financial support from Jan Frederik Gronovius, senator of Leiden, and Isaac Lawson, a Scottish physician. This folio volume of only 11 pages presented a hierarchical classification, or taxonomy, of the three kingdoms of nature: stones, plants, and animals. Each kingdom was subdivided into classes, orders, genera, species, and varieties. This hierarchy of taxonomic ranks replaced traditional systems of biological classification that were based on mutually exclusive divisions, or dichotomies. Linnaeus’s classification system has survived in biology, though additional ranks, such as families, have been added to accommodate growing numbers of species.

In particular, it was the botanical section of Systema Naturae that built Linnaeus’s scientific reputation. After reading essays on sexual reproduction in plants by Vaillant and by German botanist Rudolph Jacob Camerarius, Linnaeus had become convinced of the idea that all organisms reproduce sexually. As a result, he expected each plant to possess male and female sexual organs (stamens and pistils), or “husbands and wives,” as he also put it. On this basis, he designed a simple system of distinctive characteristics to classify each plant. The number and position of the stamens, or husbands, determined the class to which it belonged, whereas the number and position of pistils, or wives, determined the order. This “sexual system,” as Linnaeus called it, became extremely popular, though certainly not only because of its practicality but also because of its erotic connotations and its allusions to contemporary gender relations. French political theorist Jean-Jacques Rousseau used the system for his “Huit lettres elementaires sur la botanique a Madame Delessert” (1772; “Eight Letters on the Elements of Botany Addressed to Madame Delessert”). English physician Erasmus Darwin, the grandfather of Charles Darwin, used Linnaeus’s sexual system for his poem “The Botanic Garden” (1789), which caused an uproar among contemporaries for its explicit passages.

Credit : Britannica 

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Who was Carl Linnaeus?

Carl Linnaeus was a Swedish botanist who devised the binomial classification system, a two-part naming system to identify, classify and name organisms from bacteria to elephant. Carl Linnaeus is often called the Father of Taxonomy. His classification, which formed the foundation of our modern taxonomic system, uses the dual "genus, species," nomenclature to classify organisms. Linnaeus was born in the province of Smaland in Sweden in 1707. His father, a pastor and an amateur botanist, instilled a love of nature in Linnaeus. Carl Linnaeus studied medicine and science at the University of Lund and later in Uppsala University. At the time, training in botany was part of the medical curriculum, as doctors had to prescribe drugs derived from medicinal plants. But memorising scientific plant names was difficult - each plant was known by a long description in Latin.

Carl Linnaeus was keen on finding a way to name species better. In 1732, he travelled to Lapland, in the far north of Sweden, on a six-month long research expedition sponsored by the Uppsala Academy of Sciences. He collected some 400 species of new plants. He made observations of the native plants and birds. All Swedish medical students were required to receive their degrees outside Sweden, so Linnaeus finished his studies at the University of Harderwijk in the Netherlands in 1735. His doctorate was focused on the causes of malaria.

The same year, Carl Linnaeus published his pivotal work of Systema Naturae ("The System of Nature"). He had laid the groundwork for this first edition in a series of manuscripts written over the years. Systema Naturae proposed a radical new approach to the ordering and classification of plants and animals. His system was hierarchically ranked. Organisms were grouped based on morphological traits. At the broadest level, the classification system was divided into three broad kingdoms: animals, plants and minerals (the mineral designation was subsequently dropped). These categories were further subdivided into "classes," "orders," "genera," and "species."

Linnaeus continued to revise Systema Naturae throughout his lifetime. It eventually grew from 11 pages in the first edition to more than 2,000 pages, as new species were added over time. In 1739 he was among the founders of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. Linnaeus spent many years teaching at Uppsala University. Linnaeus was knighted by the King of Sweden in 1761 and took the nobleman's name of Carl von Linne.

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