My Science School - Mathematics
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10021HOW IS MATHS USED IN FOOTBALL?
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General KnowledgeMathematicsSportshttps://www.myscienceschool.org/index.php?/archives/22545-HOW-IS-MATHS-USED-IN-FOOTBALL.html#commentshttps://www.myscienceschool.org/wfwcomment.php?cid=2254560https://www.myscienceschool.org/rss.php?version=2.0&type=comments&cid=22545nospam@example.com (Keshav Jain)
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<p>You see the player advancing towards the goal, clearly trying to score. But the goalkeeper doesn't stand his ground. He runs towards the player instead of staying on the post. Why would he do that? The reason is maths!</p>
<p>Football is often referred to as "O jogo bonito", Portuguese for The beautiful game' - a nickname popularised by the Brazilian great, Pele. And rightly so.</p>
<p>Just like any other beautiful movement, football requires rhythm, coordination, and balance. And at the same time, it also requires skill. However, just being a master at tackling, shooting or goalkeeping does not necessarily make you a great player.</p>
<p>Some of the best football players on the field today are also terrific mathematicians, who use maths in football. The instinctive understanding of the concepts of geometry, speed-distance-time, and calculus which they utilise isn't determined by the ability to solve equations on a blackboard. And this application itself gives them the edge over other players. If you've watched the popular television show Ted Lasso, you will probably understand this claim by watching the coaches and players strategising how to tackle their opponents So, how is maths used in football? Let's look at calculations used by players for some of the most common goals and defence strategies in this beautiful game:</p>
<p><strong>United we stand! Tiki taka football strategy</strong></p>
<p>A great example of real-time use of geometry to create space and beat defenders is the tiki taka-a popular method that became the talk of town when Spain claimed the Euro Cup and the World Cup in 2008 and 2010. This is a systematic approach to football founded upon team unity and a comprehensive understanding in the geometry of space on a football field.</p>
<p><strong>How do players perform tiki taka? </strong></p>
<p>The football players try to form triangles all around the pitch to maintain the ball possession, making it difficult for the opponent to obtain the ball and organise their game. Tiki taka has proven to be very successful as a football strategy.</p>
<p><strong>Eyes on the prize. Goalkeeper's one on one</strong></p>
<p>One of the best examples where football and maths go hand in hand is distracting a striker. The goal is to create a larger obstruction to reduce the space available to score, hence lowering the probability of a goal</p>
<p>Often when a striker is in a one-on-one situation with the goalkeeper (like in our introduction), the latter charges towards the striker rapidly to close the space thereby reducing the angle and space available to strike the ball. This is another successful ideology of mathematical football.</p>
<p><strong>How to hit a chip shot?</strong></p>
<p>One of the most beautiful moves in football is chipping a charging goalkeeper. As the space reduces, the cool minded striker notices the increase in space to score. A 3-dimensional view allows the striker to kick over the charging goalkeepers head, and into the goalpost.</p>
<p>The chip shot, which is quite popular among both fans and players, doesn't require power, rather a deft touch that follows a perfect parabola into the net.</p>
<p><strong>Know thy enemy! Save thy penalties</strong></p>
<p>Teams these days are aware of the past penalties taken by players. Most players follow a pattern in their penalty shots and this analysis of the previous shots puts the keeper in a much better situation to predict the next shot.</p>
<p><strong>Goal posts: to go square or to go round?</strong></p>
<p>The goalposts we see now are circular and have an elliptical cross-section. The goalposts before 1987 had the square cross-section. This invariably meant that most of the shots that hit the posts, came out instead of going in which brought unnecessary disappointment to the teams.</p>
<p><strong>Does football strategy need data analysts and mathematicians?</strong></p>
<p> While football maths was initially used for strategising the buying and selling of players, it is now integrated to what it can also do on the tactical analysis of the game.</p>
<p>Believe it or not, almost every football team today has a team of mathematicians or statisticians who help the coach define football strategies based on data. A huge amount of data is collected and analysed to understand opposing teams game-play, strengths and weaknesses of players, and to define tactics.</p>
<p>For example, if two players pass the ball 300 times to each other on average in a game, what kind of advantage can the opposition gain by reducing their total number of passes to 100?</p>
<p><strong>Football tessellation</strong></p>
<p>One very obvious example of mathematical football is the shape of the ball itself. The most familiar spherical polyhedron is the ball used in football, thought of as a spherical truncated icosahedron.</p>
<p><strong>What does football tessellation mean?</strong></p>
<p> The football is usually made of white hexagon shapes and black pentagon shapes - this is an example of a tessellation figure.</p>
Sat, 23 Jul 2022 09:51:00 +0000https://www.myscienceschool.org/index.php?/archives/22545-guid.htmlWHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MATH AND SPORTS?
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<p>Behind the title-winning or record-breaking kick, hit, home run, or throw, we can uncover the mystery of maths in sports.</p>
<p>Sprinter Usain Bolt's world record of completing a 100-mt race in 9.58 seconds; cricketer Don Bradman's batting average of 99.94; and swimmer Michael Phelps' overall tally of 28 Olympic medals are a few statistics that indicate athletic brilliance. However, if you think about it, statistics is just one mathematical topic used in sports. For athletes, timing is everything. From finding the right corner of the goal to identifying the perfect arm angle to create history, most successful sportspeople are secret mathematicians at heart.</p>
<p>Let's look at five interesting aids that maths provides in sports:</p>
<p><strong>1. Geometry of angle and elevation:</strong> What did David Beckham do to bend a ball? Well, timing and probably his foot staying at the perfect angle to execute that shot. If you observe his old videos, and understand the angle and the timing of the perfect free kick, then you too can bend it like Beckham!</p>
<p><strong>2. The art of gaining body agility:</strong> It is important to preserve balance when you jump, spin, and dive in a pool or flip and spin effectively while performing gymnastics. The athletes must learn to be symmetrically aligned and distribute body mass. Olympics 2020's javelin throw gold medallist Neeraj Chopra's speed of projectile was calculated to be 105.52 kmph. This was a result of years of practice to acquire the posture and position to throw the javelin with the right force in the right direction and at the right angle.</p>
<p><strong>3. Assess the teams and schedule tournaments:</strong> Graph theory uses geometrical diagrams to come up with the number of people or teams in a tournament along with the permutation and combination of teams that will compete with each other. For example, the FIFA World Cup based on the number of teams, the match schedule is decided such that all teams play a certain number of matches and each team gets an evenly distributed resting period.</p>
<p><strong>4. Collecting data and keeping scores:</strong> You can calculate the trajectory of a running course by taking into consideration the distance of the race, lung capacity, energy intake, propulsion force, and friction. Maths is part of statistical information-from collecting data for analysis and monitoring the ongoing game to measuring the world records, which impact practice, performance, and - results in the sports world.</p>
<p><strong>5. Player selection vis-a-vis budget management:</strong> Heard of Moneyball or The Art of Winning an Unfair Game? The book-turned-movie is based on the real-life story of the Oakland Athletics baseball team where the club manager and a baseball executive used equations and statistics to determine the value of players. They calculated wins needed for the postseason and runs required by using the Pythagorean theorem. In 2002, the team won the American League West Division, with a record of 103-59.</p>
<p>It's intriguing how maths can flip numbers and change the course of a game-from applying human intelligence or sports tech to planning tactics and predicting upcoming playoffs. Behind every title-winning or record-breaking kick, hit, home run, or throw, we can uncover the mystery of maths in sports!</p>
<p><strong>Picture Credit : Google </strong></p>
Fri, 10 Jun 2022 11:34:00 +0000https://www.myscienceschool.org/index.php?/archives/22334-guid.htmlWhich day is Pi (? )Day?
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DAYS TO REMEMBERGeneral KnowledgeMathematicshttps://www.myscienceschool.org/index.php?/archives/21499-Which-day-is-Pi-Day.html#commentshttps://www.myscienceschool.org/wfwcomment.php?cid=214990https://www.myscienceschool.org/rss.php?version=2.0&type=comments&cid=21499nospam@example.com (Keshav Jain)
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<p>March 14 day is Pi Day! Pi (Greek letter "  ") is the symbol used in mathematics to represent a constant - the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter - which is approximately 3.14159. Pi has been calculated to over one trillion digits past its decimal.</p>
<p>The first official Pi Day celebration took place on March 14, 1988, at the San Francisco Exploratorium. Noted physicist, Larry Shaw was the organiser of this event. This day got a boost when the US House of Representatives recognised March 14 as the Pi Day. The first ten digits of Pi are 3.1415926535. How many digits can a man memorise? Suresh Kumar Sharma of India set the world record and memorised 70,030 digits in 2015. </p>
<p>On this day several programmes take place across the world with certain activities. Students try to solve typical mathematical problems. In educational institutions and science centres, pi memorisation challenge happens, numerical fun and quiz programmes are organised. Some of the dishes are named on pi such as pizza pie, fruit pie and so on. This celebration aims to enhance the interest of people in mathematics and physics.</p>
<p><strong>Credit : Maps of India</strong></p>
<p><strong>Picture Credit : Google </strong></p>
Sat, 09 Apr 2022 06:58:00 +0000https://www.myscienceschool.org/index.php?/archives/21499-guid.htmlWhat is the importance of mathematics in our daily lives?
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<p>You think maths is useful only as part of one's academic life? Actually, maths helps us do many important tasks in our daily life.</p>
<p><strong>1. Time and task management skills:</strong> When we wake up in the morning, we look at the time to see whether we have enough time to complete various tasks. Additionally, we use maths when it comes to reading a clock / watch or planning one's tasks. Maths is the primary factor in managing time while completing various tasks in our daily lives.</p>
<p><strong>2. Budgeting and dealing with money:</strong> Managing money, understanding discounts, and buying for the best price all involve the knowledge of maths and, at least, a basic understanding of how percentages work. Here's an example. How much would a shirt or blouse cost once a 50 % discount is applied? What about once the taxes are added? These questions can be answered only once we understand how discounts and percentages work.</p>
<p><strong>3. Understanding your favorite sports activity:</strong> Basic knowledge of maths also helps keep track of scores for every sports activity. Geometry and trigonometry can also help students find the best way to hit a ball, make a basket, or run around the track in an effective manner.</p>
<p><strong>4. Baking your favorite pie:</strong> Measuring the ingredients to add to a recipe and kitchen inventory planning require an understanding of fractions and conversion. For example, if the recipe calls for two cups, but you only have a quarter-cup measuring tool and a half-cup measuring tool, how much adds up to two?</p>
<p><strong>5. Home decor and interior designing:</strong> A fair knowledge of dimensions, units, and unit conversions is required to be able to sail through any basic home decoration. Common questions when you are trying to set up your new space or apartment could range from the dimensions of wallpaper needed for a wall to having enough space to fit your favorite couch. It's very important to know these basics before you head to a store.</p>
<p><strong>6. Exercising and dieting:</strong> We set our routine according to our workout schedule, count the number of repetitions while exercising, etc., just based on maths. Additionally, we set up diet and meal plans based on effective management of time and meals.</p>
<p><strong>7. Driving:</strong> Operating a car or motorcycle is ultimately nothing but a series of calculations with respect to the number of km to the destination, the amount of petrol in the vehicle, the distance that can be covered in a given amount of time or per litre of fuel, how a traffic jam can slow the pace, etc.</p>
<p><strong>8. DIY clothing and design:</strong> Maths is also an essential aspect of designing. From taking measurements and estimating the quantity of clothes to producing clothes according to one's needs and tastes, maths is followed at every stage.</p>
<p><strong>9. Critical thinking:</strong> Technically, 'critical thinking' is not even maths as there are no numbers involved. However, knowledge of maths surely increases the ability to think critically. The more maths skills you gain, the more you observe the minute details, question available data, rule out unnecessary data, and analyse it for your benefit.</p>
<p><strong>10. The base of other subjects:</strong> Although maths is a unique subject, it also forms the base for every other subject, including physics, chemistry, economics, history, accountancy, and statistics.</p>
<p>Maths is a tool in our hands to make our lives easier and more seamless. The more mathematical we are in our approach, the more rational would be our thoughts.</p>
<p>Picture Credit : Google</p>
Mon, 28 Feb 2022 07:34:00 +0000https://www.myscienceschool.org/index.php?/archives/20820-guid.htmlWhat is the main concept of Rhind papyrus in the Egyptian mathematical system?
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<p>The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus is the best example of Egyptian mathematics. Dating back to 1650 BC, it was copied by an Egyptian scribe named Ahmes from another document written around 2000 BC. It is named after Alexander Rhind, a Scottish antiquarian, who purchased the papyrus in 1858 in Luxor, Egypt. The papyrus is 33 cm tall and 5 m long and contains 87 mathematical problems as well as the earliest reference to Pi.</p>
<p>The Pharaoh’s surveyors used measurements based on body parts (a palm was the width of the hand, a cubit the measurement from elbow to fingertips) to measure land and buildings very early in Egyptian history, and a decimal numeric system was developed based on our ten fingers. The oldest mathematical text from ancient Egypt discovered so far, though, is the Moscow Papyrus, which dates from the Egyptian Middle Kingdom around 2000 – 1800 BCE.</p>
<p>It is thought that the Egyptians introduced the earliest fully-developed base 10 numeration system at least as early as 2700 BCE (and probably much early). Written numbers used a stroke for units, a heel-bone symbol for tens, a coil of rope for hundreds and a lotus plant for thousands, as well as other hieroglyphic symbols for higher powers of ten up to a million. However, there was no concept of place value, so larger numbers were rather unwieldy (although a million required just one character, a million minus one required fifty-four characters).</p>
<p>The Rhind Papyrus, dating from around 1650 BCE, is a kind of instruction manual in arithmetic and geometry, and it gives us explicit demonstrations of how multiplication and division was carried out at that time. It also contains evidence of other mathematical knowledge, including unit fractions, composite and prime numbers, arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means, and how to solve first order linear equations as well as arithmetic and geometric series. The Berlin Papyrus, which dates from around 1300 BCE, shows that ancient Egyptians could solve second-order algebraic (quadratic) equations.</p>
<p>Practical problems of trade and the market led to the development of a notation for fractions. The papyri which have come down to us demonstrate the use of unit fractions based on the symbol of the Eye of Horus, where each part of the eye represented a different fraction, each half of the previous one (i.e. half, quarter, eighth, sixteenth, thirty-second, sixty-fourth), so that the total was one-sixty-fourth short of a whole, the first known example of a geometric series. Unit fractions could also be used for simple division sums.</p>
<p>The Egyptians approximated the area of a circle by using shapes whose area they did know. They observed that the area of a circle of diameter 9 units, for example, was very close to the area of a square with sides of 8 units, so that the area of circles of other diameters could be obtained by multiplying the diameter by 8?9 and then squaring it. This gives an effective approximation of ? accurate to within less than one percent.</p>
<p>The pyramids themselves are another indication of the sophistication of Egyptian mathematics. Setting aside claims that the pyramids are first known structures to observe the golden ratio of 1 : 1.618 (which may have occurred for purely aesthetic, and not mathematical, reasons), there is certainly evidence that they knew the formula for the volume of a pyramid – 1?3 times the height times the length times the width – as well as of a truncated or clipped pyramid.</p>
<p>They were also aware, long before Pythagoras, of the rule that a triangle with sides 3, 4 and 5 units yields a perfect right angle, and Egyptian builders used ropes knotted at intervals of 3, 4 and 5 units in order to ensure exact right angles for their stonework (in fact, the 3-4-5 right triangle is often called “Egyptian”).</p>
<p>Credit : Story of Mathematics </p>
<p>Picture Credit : Google</p>
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