What is reverse engineering?

From fighter aircraft and missiles to cars, there are many examples of products made by reverse engineering.

Reverse engineering is the process by which a product is dismantled to find out how it works so that a duplicate can be made or it can be improved upon. It is done for commercial purposes. It tries to deduce details of product design and manufacture in the absence of complete documentation. It is also used in military or commercial espionage. The rival's or the enemy's prototype is stolen and disassembled to collect sensitive data so that a similar product can be made or countermeasures taken. During World War II, British and American forces found that German cans were sturdy and had an excellent design. They used reverse engineering to copy the design and produce similar cans. They came to be known as Jerry cans. From fighter aircraft and missiles to cars, there are many examples of products made by reverse engineering.

Reverse engineering is also used for software analysis. It is done to study the source code of a program if it is lost, or with a view to improving the program. It is also done to fix a bug or a virus.

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I have a great interest in civil engineering

I have a great interest in civil engineering but my parents say that for girls there won't be good job opportunities. As there's a lot of field work involved and stress it is not a preferable course for girls. Please advise.

Civil engineers design and build things like roads and bridges. So you will be working with a diverse group of people ranging from the owners to the design consultants, to the contractors, to the government regulators, suppliers, the labour unions, and the general public. Sometimes you may have difficulty in working with the labour class and may face other site problems. Maybe your parents are concerned due to these reasons. But civil engineering is not limited to only field engineering; you can opt for off-site jobs like analysis, designing, tendering, managing projects, etc.

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I am interested in Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering

I am a student of Std IX and I am interested in Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering. What is the scope of these subjects? How can I get a degree in this course and the institutions where these courses are available?

A Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary science including not only biology but also subjects like Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Microbiology. To pursue a career in this field, take Biology, Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry in 10+2. After that, go for B.Sc./B.Tech. (Biotechnology). The duration of a B.Sc. programme is three years whereas it is four years for B.E. and B.Tech. courses.

Admission is generally through an entrance test. You can also do post-graduation in Biotechnology after B.Sc.

There are many colleges offering these courses. Many IITs and NITS offer B.Tech. in Biotechnology, for which you need to appear in JEE and AIEEE. This field is rapidly growing and offer wonderful opportunities, as many biotech companies are investing heavily into research of new drugs and biological products.

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I will be preparing for the engineering exams and for the civil services

I'm in Std XI and have opted for PCM. I will be preparing for the engineering exams and for the civil services. I am an enthusiastic student of chemistry; what are the probable career options in this field?

The study of chemistry leads to a variety of careers and professions. Chemistry graduates can get beginners' jobs in quality control, analysis and testing or in technical sales and services. Food processing and pharmaceutical industries employ chemistry graduates as technical assistants.

Master's degree holders in chemistry generally find employment in one of three areas; industry, government and education. In industry, they may undertake research and development, quality control, sales and technical service, technical or general management. They increasingly work in marketing, providing technical information on chemical products and services. In addition, government departments like water, soil conservation, forensic science, customs and industrial safety departments employ them in scientific analysis, research, policy development and administration. To do research or to teach in colleges and universities, a Ph.D. is generally needed.

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I want to make a career in bio medical engineering

I am in Std VIII. I want to make a career in bio medical engineering. Which courses should I take after Std X? Please suggest some good colleges in Mumbai.

Biomedical engineers utilize the customary engineering methods and theories to examine and resolve problems in biology and medicine, and thereby provide a complete enhancement of health care. X-ray machines, pacemakers, drug infusion pumps, artificial organs, medical implants: these are all creations of biomedical engineers. They sometimes do research on how to best design computer software and electric circuits meant to be used for medical purposes.

For admission to a bachelor's degree, the candidate must pass 10+2 with a science subject such as biology, maths and chemistry. Some of the institutes in Mumbai are Dwarkadas J. Sanghvi College Of Engineering; Watumull Institute of Electronics Engineering and Computer Technology; Thadomal Shahani Engineering College and Vidyalankar Institute of Technology.

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What is the career in sound engineering?

Did you know that the ominous piece of music that plays whenever a shark approaches the victims in the film "Jaws" was created by simply alternating the pattern of two notes "E" and "F. Forty-five years later, the soundtrack continues to be synonymous with approaching danger. That's the power of sound engineering.

Sound is an integral part of our lives, and over the years, it has become an important part of the movie going experience as well. And its the sound engineers that help filmmakers to use sound to create suspense, stir our emotions and eve get our adrenaline pumping The role of sound engineers is not just restricted to films they work in a variety of fields to record, synchronise, mix or reproduce music voices, or sound effects.

What is sound engineering?

Sound engineering is a branch of engineering that deals with the perception and presentation of sound Sound designing and mixing can be used across disciplines such as filmmaking, television production, theatre. live performance, video game development music recording and radio.

What is the scope?

Sound engineering opens up myriad career options, including as studio sound engineer, audio engineer, live sound engineer, studio designer, mixing engineer, music arranger, mastering engineer, audio post production dialogue and music editor, and location recordist.

Different branches of sound engineering

1. Research and Development The work of an audio engineer in the research and development sector involves enhancing the process of audio engineering by developing new equipment, technologies and techniques.

2. Monitor Sound Engineers: A Monitor Sound Engineer helps live performers by assisting them on audio and sound enhancement

3. Systems Engineers: Systems engineers assist the monitor sound engineers by taking care of AMPS, complex PA systems. speakers and other equipment.

4. Recording Engineers: Recording Engineers are the tune setters of an album. They perform duties of recording, editing and mixing sound using microphones, setting levels and sound manipulation techniques.

Where to study

  • Film and Television Institute of India, Pune, and Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute of India. Kolkata: Sound Recording and Sound Design - Three year postgraduate (PG) diploma

  • Asian Academy of Film And Television, Noida: Diploma in Music Production

  • Ramoji Academy of Film and Television, Hyderabad: Diploma in Sound Recording and Designing

  • Annapuma College of Film and Media, Hyderabad: Master of Arts (MA) Sound Design Abroad

  • Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden: Master of Science (M.Sc) Engineering in Sound and Vibration

  • Georgia Institute of Technology, the U.S.: Bachelor of Science (B.S.) and MS. in Music Technology

  • Lawrence institute of Technology, the US.: B.S. in Audio Engineering Technology


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I want to take up a career in chemical engineering

I am a student of Class X. I want to take up a career in chemical engineering. What study plans should I opt for? I want to make a career in this field abroad. Which countries will provide better opportunities?

Chemical engineers design equipment and develop processes for the manufacture of chemicals in chemical plants. They plan and test methods of manufacturing products and supervise their production. A graduate degree in a respective field, i.e., Bachelor in Engineering (B.E.)/Bachelor in Technology (Bach.) courses is the minimum requirement to enter this field. Admission to these four-year courses in different colleges/ institutes is made on the basis of admission tests for which the basic eligibility is 10+2 with physics, chemistry and mathematics. These tests evaluate students' aptitude, ability, knowledge and application of the subjects.


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I want to pursue a career in engineering

I am Std XI student. I have taken PCM and want to pursue a career in engineering. I’m a bit confused between Mechanics and Architecture. I had thought about Architecture since I was 10 years old but I’ve been interested in mechanics since a few months. Please help me with the right choice.

Engineering courses require mainly maths and science skills. But for becoming an architect, aptitude is important. This job requires not only a creative mind (it takes more than just drawing pictures), but also good communication skills as you will interact with many clients. The initial earnings of an architect are not very high, because this is a field where a student has to learn a lot even after finishing the course. They may start with a salary of Rs.40, 000-50,000 a month. But after gaining experience of few years, architects with the right aptitude can earn quite a high income.


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What is the main difference between Computer Science Engineering and Information Technology Engineering?

I’m 17 years old and doing my 12th in PCMs stream. Next year I will be entering engineering. What is the main difference between Computer Science Engineering and Information Technology Engineering? Which has a wider scope in the future and also promises a better job with good prospects? I’m really confused?

Both the branches are related to programming; neither involves hardware. But in general, Computer Science (CS) handles the technical working of computers, like how to build micro processors, how to write a compiler, etc. Information Technology (IT) is the business side of computers usually dealing with databases, business, and accounting. CS generally requires a decent background in maths while use of maths in IT is limited to data analysis/processing/statistics, etc.

Most of the top institutes (including all the IITs, IIITs and most NITs) have either CS or IT, but not both. This clearly signals that the difference between the two branches is not significant enough to warrant their simultaneous presence on a campus, at least in the eyes of the top engineering colleges of the country. Furthermore, for the few colleges that do offer both IT and CS, the differences in the course structure are minimal.

Companies do not differentiate between IT/CS. If you have to choose between IT and CS and have both options in hand, it would be wise to decide on the basis of the branch. If you can get CS go for it but if you like programming and your rank can’t fetch you a CS seat, then IT won’t disappoint you. If you are hardworking, you will get what you will get what you need to become a successful programmer from IT branches.


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Hotel Management or B.Tech. in Computer Engineering

I am a Class 12 Science student. I’m confused whether I should opt for B.Sc. in Hotel Management and Culinary Arts or do a B.Tech. in Computer Engineering. Which one do you think is a better option? Is there any scope for girls in India for Hotel Management and Culinary Arts?

Both hotel management and B.Tech. are good options. If you are a technically skilled person, love to play with machines and have an interest in programming, automobiles and construction then you can choose B.Tech. to pursue this field, you should choose Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry in 10+2 and appear for various competitive exams. On the other hand, if you like interacting with different people and are interested in management, hospitality, cooking and other services then you can choose Hotel Management. This course involves learning about reception and concierge services, restaurant and bar functions, administration, management and marketing.

Engineering and Hotel Management and totally different fields; it is up to you in which field you want to make your career and what is your passion, your goal and what you want to achieve in your life. You can also do engineering and can work in the hotel in the maintenance department.


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