Who was Rudyard Kipling?

Rudyard Kipling was part of every child's growing up years in India. His mastery over storytelling and crafting poetry was such that he became a hit with both children and adults. Read up on the author whose birth anniversary was recently celebrated.

Remember the legend of Mowgli? The long-haired orphan boy raised in the wild by the animals? As Mowgli adventured in the woods and learned the ways of the wild, a part of us was also travelling with him, joining in his escapades. That was the magic wielded by Rudyard Kipling which made him one of the most loved children's writers. Needless to say, "The Jungle Book" (1894) was synonymous with one's childhood.

Kipling was part of every child's growing up years India. His mastery over in storytelling and crafting poetry was such that he became a hit with both children and adults. Children grew up listening to stories he wrote, whilst adults knew his poems by heart.

Early years                          

Born in Bombay in 1865, Kipling's father John Lockwood Kipling was an artist. His mother was Alice Macdonald. His parents belonged to Anglo-Indian society. Kipling was relocated to England when he was small, a journey that made his childhood traumatic. He was sent to a foster home in England. He even wrote about this traumatic period in the semi-autobiographical short story titled "Baa Baa Black Sheep" (1888).

Kipling was educated in England at the United Services College, a boarding school in Westward Ho, North Devon, England. He then returned to India when he was 17 to pursue a career in journalism which he started off as the assistant editor of the Civil and Military Gazette at Lahore. Meanwhile, "Departmental Ditties" (1886), a verse collection, marked the start of his literary career. He also published stories based on British lives in India. Thus was born "Plain Tales from the Hills" (1888). It was the first collection of short stories by Kipling. In 1888, he joined another publication Allahabad Pioneer.

His body of work spanned different genres, and styles, be it poetry, short-story or novel. His early volumes of short stories were set in India. He appealed to the masses and was a celebrated writer during his time. One of his poems that is often revered by both adults and children is "If" which is considered a classic. The poem is believed to have been inspired by Leander Starr Jameson, a British colonial politician. Kipling is also noted for his stories and poems about British soldiers in India.

Although Kipling published several short-story collections and poetry collections, his most famous novels were published in the 1890s and later. In 1892, Kipling married Caroline Balestier after which he moved to Vermont. It was while in America that he published the much-acclaimed "The Jungle Book" (1894). His novel "Kim" (1901) which is themed around an Irish orphan in India, is one of his most famous works. The sequel to 'The Jungle Book", "Second Jungle Book" (1895) is another celebrated work of his. Other noted works include "Captain Courageous" and "The Light that Failed".

Some of his famous poems are "The Ballad of East and West," "Danny Deever,""Tommy," and "The Road to Mandalay". "Just So Stories" is yet another well-loved series by Kipling. These stories were in fact written for his own children. The stories are meant to be read out aloud and were noted for their intriguing, playful language that would appeal to the children. His last work for children was "Puck of Pook's Hill" and its sequel, "Rewards and Fairies".

Did you know that Kipling also got a Nobel prize in literature in 1907? He was the first Englishman to receive it! In 1902, Kipling moved to Sussex and lived there until his death.He passed away in 1936 and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

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What is the point of view of Black Beauty by Anna Sewell?

As her birth anniversary approaches, let us delve into the life of the remarkable. Anna Sewell, a British wordsmith whose singular publication Black Beauty is considered to be one of the foremost works in animal welfare literature. Her magnum opus, which is a leading work in children's pony book genre, trotted onto bookshelves just five months prior to her demise in 1877 and has since been the most celebrated animal story that revolutionised the way we treat and interact with animals.

Anna Sewell was born on March 30, 1820, in Yarmouth, England. Her mother, Mary Wright Sewell, was also a writer who specialised in children's stories while her father, Isaac Sewell, worked as a shopkeeper and bank clerk, but struggled to maintain a steady income. The family's financial struggles cast a shadow over Anna's childhood, which was marked by hardship and turmoil.

 Tragically, when Anna was just 14 years old, she suffered a serious injury that would have a lasting impact on her life. While walking back from school, she broke her ankle, and the injury was not properly treated, leaving her severely disabled and in poor health for the remainder of her life.

Love for horses

Being reliant on horse-drawn carriages for any excursion beyond her home, she developed an affinity for horses that eventually grew into a deep love for them. As she spent more time around these magnificent creatures, she became increasingly troubled by the widespread mistreatment and neglect they endured at the hands of their owners. Sewell spent her final years as an invalid under the constant care of her mother. Her health had deteriorated to such an extent that she was confined to her bed, with very little mobility. However, it was during this period of confinement that she resolved to write a book that would shed light on the harsh and inhumane treatment of horses that was prevalent during the 19th Century. Her only novel, Black Beauty, was finally published when she was 57 years old, in 1877.

Sadly, Anna Sewell passed away a mere five months after the publication of her book. While the cause of her death remains uncertain, it is widely believed that she succumbed to either hepatitis or phthisis. However, in the few months that she lived after the publication of Black Beauty, she was able to witness the overwhelmingly positive response to her work. Last September, Sewell's home in Yarmouth, Norfolk, was turned into a museum open to the public.

Black Beauty

Animal tales have always captivated our imagination, with their anthropomorphic (having human characteristics) characters and magical worlds. However, it was the publication of Black Beauty in 1877 that brought about a new era of realistic animal storytelling. This novel takes us on a journey through the eyes of a horse living in 19th Century England, narrated in the first-person perspective. Despite the wide range of emotions and thoughts expressed by the horse, the story remains grounded in the animal's true nature, which is both commendable and visionary for its time.

For centuries, horses have been an essential part of society, aiding in various sectors such as agriculture, transportation, construction, and even warfare. Although steam power reduced their workload, horses still played a significant role in English society. Black Beauty revealed the cruelty inflicted upon these animals due to the vanity of the high society and the financial hardships of the working class.

Often considered a children's classic, this book was originally crafted to serve as an autobiography of a horse. Through this story, Sewell intended to raise awareness and promote kindness, sympathy, and humane treatment towards horses. The novel's vivid imagery and simple, lyrical prose facilitates the same. Black Beauty not only broke new ground in animal rights storytelling but also paved the way for more tales featuring horses. However, these works may not have been narrated from the horse's point of view.

Pony book genre

Black Beauty's success led to the rise of the Pony book genre, which gained immense popularity in the last century. These books revolve around the lives of kids and teens who share a love for horses. Such stories are an ode to the incredible bond between humans and horses, which often inspire young readers to develop a passion for equine culture. Today, the role of horses in our lives may have reduced, but the message of Black Beauty and similar works continue to inspire us to treat all living creatures with love, kindness, and respect.

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What is Erich Maria Remarque's purpose for writing ‘All Quiet on the Western Front’?

Erich Maria Remarque's ‘All Quiet on the Western Front’ stands tall as a paramount piece of anti-war literature, capturing the harrowing tale of a generation vanquished by World War 1. The first-ever non English adaptation of this literary masterpiece is honoured with nine Academy Award nominations this year. Let us revisit this classic and see what makes it relevant today.

About the author

Erich Maria Remarque was born in Osnabruck, Germany, in 1898 into a lower-middle-class family. As a young man of 18, he was pursuing higher education at the University of Munster when fate intervened and drafted him (along with a number of his classmates) into the German army. Amidst the turmoil of war, he discovered his passion for storytelling and began writing fiction.

After six months of military training, his unit was sent to the Western Front. The horrors of World War (1914-1918) cast a long shadow on Remarque's writing, shaping him into the author he would become. He found himself thrust into the trenches of Flanders. Belgium and experienced the brutal reality of trench warfare firsthand. In 1917, he was injured by the fierce barrage of British artillery, and a year later was sent back to the front lines, post-recovery. It was during his recovery that Remarque thought of writing a novel about the war. He gathered material for his book from personal stories sent by his friends from the battlefield and also interviewed wounded soldiers, to come up with authentic scenes for his story. Shortly thereafter a revolution led to the overthrow of Germany's imperial government and the establishment of a republic. On November 11, 1918, the newly- formed government signed a formal agreement with the Allies, effectively bringing an end to the fighting. These wartime events, coupled with the loss of some of his comrades, left a profound impact on Remarque, inspiring him to pen his most influential novel, ‘Im Westen Nichts Neues’. Published in Germany in 1929, Remarque's literary masterpiece sold over 1.2 million copies within a year, solidifying his place as one of Germany's most celebrated writers. The English translation of this novel, ‘All Quiet on the Western Front’ was published in the same year and garnered similar success. It went on to be translated into more than 20 languages and was made into a celebrated Hollywood film in 1930.

What makes it a classic?

The horrors of war

The novel describes the physical and emotional toll that war tikes on soldiers, and highlights the senseless violence and destruction that war creates. It is the author’s attempt to highlight and document how despite dodging death in the trenches and making it back home, a soldier’s soul is irreversibly crushed by what he witnessed at the war front.

Today, as conflicts (like the Russian invasion of Ukraine) continue to occur around the world the novel serves as a reminder of the human cost of war and the need for peaceful solutions to conflicts.

Dehumanisation of soldiers

The soldiers in the novel are forced to abandon their individuality and become part of a machine-like military system. This is still relevant today, as soldiers continue to face the challenge of maintaining their own identity in the face of military discipline. One of the most striking aspects of the novel is the way it depicts the soldiers as being treated as expendable objects, rather than human beings with lives, families, and aspirations.

They are constantly reminded of their duty to the state and the importance of sacrifice. The book describes how the trauma and the unspeakable acts of violence soldiers witness on the battlefield transform them into brute tools of war, devoid of humanity.


The novel also explores the theme of disillusionment. As the war drags on, Paul and his comrades become increasingly disillusioned with the ideals of patriotism and duty that drove them to enlist in the first place. They realise that they have been fed lies and propaganda to justify a war that has only brought them suffering and death. The novel also portrays the difficulty of these soldiers in returning to civilian life after the war, as Paul struggles to reconnect with a society that does not understand or appreciate the sacrifices he and his fellow soldiers made.

In this way, this German classic highlights the devastating effects of war on both the individual and society as a whole and serves as a powerful critique of the glorification of war and how it is justified as nationalism.

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What was Gabriel Garcia Marquez famous for?

A master storyteller, Colombian novelist Gabriel García Márquez ushered in a new era in the literary world by weaving magic with reality and giving a fresh spin to the conventional style of storytelling. The literary fiction style of magical realism has supernatural and dreamlike elements blended into the temporal world. Let's read up on the author whose birth anniversary falls in March.

Tiny yellow flowers rain from the sky, magic carpets fly, villagers get haunted by ghosts, corpses do not decompose and trickles of blood climb stairs! The real and the magic merge here. Colombian novelist and Nobel laureate Gabriel García Márquez took fiction to a whole new level, seamlessly integrating fantasy and dreamlike elements into realistic settings. What he started came to be referred to as magical realism. Perhaps Márquez is one of the few Latin American authors who enjoyed so much international success. His works were universal and got translated into dozens of languages and sold by millions. Be it critical acclaim or widespread commercial success, Marquez enjoyed it all.

Early years

Born in Aracataca, Colombia in 1927, Márquez was the eldest of 16 children. His parents were Luisa Santiaga Márquez and Gabriel Elijio Garcia. His father was a postal clerk and telegraph operator. A large part of his childhood was spent living with his grandparents. He has mentioned that his maternal grandfather, Nicolas Márquez Mejia, a retired army man, was a great influence on him. He often called him the most important figure of my life when he was a teenager. Márquez moved to Bogotá. Although he began to study law here he abandoned his studies and started working as a journalist. He started working for the Colombian newspaper ‘El Espectador’. In the 1950s and 1960s, he worked as a foreign correspondent in Paris, Rome, Barcelona, New York and so on. He then decided to focus on creative writing.

Literary career                                                                                                                                

Marquez is synonymous with magical realism. He popularised the unique literary style of storytelling where reality and fantasy blend seamlessly. Marquez was also an avid reader. In an interview, he once remarked "I cannot imagine how anyone could even think of writing a novel without having at least a vague of idea of the 10.000 years of literature that have gone before.” Having said that Marquez always made sure that he never imitated the writers he admired. While Marquez is widely known for his work "One Hundred Years of Solitude” (1967) which earned him the Pulitzer Prize his non-fiction works and short stories are equally famous "Love in the Time of Cholera” (1985) is yet another famous novel of his.

When the newspaper where he worked was shut down. Marquez went jobless. Event while he was stranded in Paris and doing odd jobs, he started working on two novels titled “No One Writes to the Colonel” and “In Evil Hour” which were published in 1961 and 1962 respectively. Incidentally, the first novel "Leaf Storm” was published in 1955

"One Hundred Years of Solitude"

His masterstroke arrived in the form of “One Hundred Years of Solitude”, where the story revolves around the isolated town of Macondo. The fantastical and magical elements in the story are written in such a way that they look like they are rooted in reality.

Marquez got inspired to write the story when he was driving to Acapulco, Mexico. He had moved to Mexico City by then. On reaching home, he tried to give shape to his idea and spent 18 months writing the novel. The book was published in 1967 and was an instant success so much so that it was sold out within days. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1982.

Magical realism

While Marquez is regarded as one who invented magical realism, the author never made any such claim. He often said that some elements of the genre had appeared earlier in Latin American literature. This style of writing later inspired writers across including Isabel Allende and Salman Rushdie.

He died of pneumonia in 2014 at the age of 87.

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What is the main theme of The Outsiders by S.E. Hinton?

‘The Outsiders’ by American author S.E. Hinton is a timeless coming-of-age novel that explores the universal themes of identity and belonging. Set against the backdrop of gang violence in the 1960s America, the novel follows the struggles of a group of teenagers as they navigate the complexities of friendship, family, and social class. Let us revisit the classic and see what makes it relevant today.

About the author

Susan Eloise Hinton was born in 1950 in Tulsa, Oklahoma. She wrote the majority of her debut novel ‘The Outsiders’ at the age of 15, while she was still attending high school. However, when she submitted a shorter version of the story for a creative writing class, her teacher gave her a failing grade of F. Fortunately, a family friend recognised the potential of her work and contacted a publisher on Hinton's behalf. Things took a turn in her favour and by the time she was 17, the book was in print.

At the recommendation of her publisher, ‘The Outsiders’ was published under the name S.E Hinton. The decision was made out of the concern that boys may not be inclined to read the novel if they knew a female author wrote it.

The Outsiders Recommended age: 12+

Set in Oklahoma in the 1960s, the novel follows the story of Ponyboy Curtis, a 14-year-old boy from a poor family who is part of a gang called the greasers. The greasers are constantly at odds with a rival gang called the socs, who come from wealthier families. When a violent confrontation between the two groups leaves one of the socs dead, Ponyboy and his friend Johnny Cade go on the run, setting off a chain of events that forces them to confront the harsh realities of their world and the importance of loyalty and friendship.

What makes it a classic?


Hinton's literary legacy is grounded in a simple principle: authenticity. By staying true to this guiding principle and presenting unflinching depictions of life's trials and tribulations, she has captured the hearts and minds of young readers for generations. Her iconic novel ‘The Outsiders’, delves deep into the timeless themes of identity, belonging, and the struggles of adolescence, resonating with readers of all ages. Hinton herself acknowledges that the reason for her enduring popularity is that she writes for teenagers with honesty and candour, never sugarcoating the realities of life. Through her characters' complex and multifaceted journeys, Hinton delivers a powerful message about the importance of friendship, loyalty, and the search for meaning in a world that can often seem overwhelming.

Young adult fiction redefined

The literary landscape of adolescent or young adult (YA) literature was forever changed with the release of The Outsulers, as it broke the mould of traditional teen focussed fiction by giving a raw and authentic voice to the adolescent experience No longer were teenagers relegated to mere background characters or stereotypical caricatures, but instead, they became the vibrant and complex protagonists of their own stories.

Although some grown-ups were initially taken aback by Hinton's unflinching portrayal of a world rife with peer pressure, entrenched social hierarchies, parental abuse, and gang violence, the novel quickly became a cultural touchstone for young people and writers alike. Its immense influence on the genre cannot be understated, and many scholars even trace the birth of contemporary YA fiction back to the groundbreaking publication of ‘The Outsiders’ in 1967.

Hinton's masterpiece not only legitimised YA literature as a serious and important genre but also inspired a generation of writers to explore the rich, multifaceted lives of young adults in their own work. ‘The Outsiders’ remains a timeless classic and a shining example of the power of literature to give voice to the voiceless and empower those who have been traditionally marginalised.

Life inspires art

As a high school student, Hinton was troubled by the divisions that existed within her school, particularly the bitter rivalries between different gangs. These gangs were primarily determined by economic and social status. Growing up on the rough side of the town, Hinton was keenly aware of the challenges that these kids faced and the stereotypes that were often perpetuated in popular culture. In fact, her dissatisfaction with the way that teen life was being portrayed in books was the driving force behind her decision to write ‘The Outsiders’.

‘There was only a handful of books having teenage protagonists…. I was surrounded by teens and I could not see anything going on in those books that had anything to do with real life." Hinton said about the inspiration behind her best-selling debut novel.

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What is the analysis of the story a devoted son by Anita Desai?

How does one develop this important skill? By actively engaging in "understanding, analysing, interpreting, synthesising, and evaluating". Here's how it can be done, as explained through the popular story A Devoted Son by Anita Desai.

Critical thinking, branded the century's most critical skill, is to be developed by actively engaging in “understanding, analyzing, interpreting, synthesizing, and evaluating”. For the mind to get habituated, one has to consistently practise them by means of whatever is read and heard consciously, until they become an unconscious process.

However, multiple social media platforms and the avalanche of information they dole out every second force people to be passive consumers. With hardly any time left for reflection, they are unable to sift facts from opinions and tend to accept even fake news as real stories. The adage, "A lie will travel halfway around the world while the truth is still pulling its boots on proves to be true. The innate longing for novelty paves way for false news to go viral and compel people into a manipulated universe.

The club members confessed that comprehending stories is a non-issue but they were uncertain of critically appreciating them by engaging in analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. And, they were convinced that the path to critical thinking was through stories as they were usually gripped by them. A film reviewer came to our rescue and referred to the popular story A Devoted Son by Anita Desai to concretise the discussion. Also, he encouraged us to read as many stories of our choice as possible from any anthology for cross-references.

He started off by listing out the aspects considered for a critical analysis, namely plot and plot development characters and characterisation, setting, point of view, theme, narrative technique, writers style, comparisons (with a writers other stories, and similar stories of others), and reviewers opinion. But he limited himself to the plot and plot development to avoid clutter.

A clear distinction was made by him between plot and story as these terms are often used interchangeably Story is the entire narrative which includes all the aspects but plot is just one of them. Plot is a series of events that form the story, including the order in which they occur and their relationship with each other. He then, highlighted the five integral parts of a plot exposition (introduction), rising action, climax falling action, and resolution (conclusion). He demonstrated these aspects and explained them diagrammatically.

Exposition: All the major characters are introduced- Rakesh, the central character, and his father. Varma. The setting is the ‘small yellow house’ in a ‘shabby colony’ and the relationship between the father and son as the theme begins to unfold. Also, the minor characters such as his mother and his wife appear at the beginning itself.

Rising action: Rakesh, the topper in the medical field, returns from the U.S., gets married to the girl of his mother's choice, becomes a famed doctor, sets up his own clinic and flourishes.

Climax: His father's retirement and his mother's death affecting his father to be totally broken and falling ill with mysterious diseases.

Falling action: The deterioration of his father’s health, denial of the food he longs for, forcing him to take medicines and tonics, his father wishing for his death rather than leading a prolonged miserable life.

Resolution: The death of his father despite his utmost care. (An ironic ending demonstrates how excessive devotion could lead to a torturous life.)

We all realised how our usual reading of stories, focussing on the storyline and ignoring the integral parts, remained at the superficial level. But an in-depth analysis, akin to a mechanic dismantling an engine to reassemble it after a thorough investigation, made us appreciate the story better.

Reflecting over anything that is read or heard is a must, prior to accepting or rejecting. But one must not fall prey to falsehoods. Let us rise above superficial comprehension and shallow responses by developing critical sensibility.

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The right space for writers

From cosy nooks tucked away in bustling cities to serene hideaways nestled in nature's embrace, authors have long sought out perfect writing spots to unleash their creativity. In this article, we delve into the cherished writing sanctuaries of renowned authors.

Maya Angelou

Maya Angelou, the renowned poet and author, found solace and inspiration in the privacy of hotel rooms, often choosing them as her dedicated writing spaces. Even when she had a permanent residence, she would frequently rent hotel rooms, maintaining one in her hometown as of 2013. In these rooms, she would create a personalised environment by keeping the sheets unchanged and removing any artwork from the walls. The American memoirist had a specific routine: she would leave her home early in the morning, arriving at the hotel room around 6.30 a.m. While writing, she would often lie across the bed, with her elbow becoming calloused from the constant support. She never allowed the hotel staff to change the bedsheets since she used them solely for writing, not for sleeping. Angelou would continue writing until late morning or early afternoon before returning to her home. This unique practice allowed her to find the focus and inspiration needed to produce her remarkable literary works.

Agatha Christie

Agatha Christie, the youngest of three children, received her education at home from her mother, who consistently encouraged her writing pursuits. Known for her classical detective stories, the English author did not have a dedicated writing room. Instead, she carried notebooks with her and would jot down plots, meticulously labelling each notebook. While there is speculation that Christie conceived many of her masterpieces while sitting in her large Victorian bathtub, eating apples, this detail is not confirmed. According to reports, she claimed that the plots for her books took shape and were refined during everyday activities such as washing dishes, bathing, eating, and walking. These ordinary moments provided fertile ground for her creative thoughts to unfold. Regardless of the precise locations or circumstances, Agatha Christie's remarkable ability to craft intricate and captivating plots remains legendary.

E.B. White

E.B. White is renowned for his beloved book, Charlotte's Web, which captured the hearts of readers with its endearing characters, Wilbur the pig born a 'runt and the spider Charlotte. Interestingly, the American author did not seek out the quietest corner to write. Instead, he often chose to work in his living room amidst the bustling activities of everyday life. He embraced the constant movement around him, and his family members would carry on as if he were not even present. As White believed, "A writer who waits for ideal conditions under which to work will die without putting a word on paper."

Henry David Thoreau

Henry David Thoreau, the renowned American author and philosopher, had a deep connection with nature and sought solitude in his writing endeavours. His most famous work, Walden, was largely inspired by his time spent living in a small cabin near Walden Pond in Concord, Massachusetts. Thoreau's writing spot of choice was within the confines of his humble cabin, from where he could enjoy the picturesque view of the pond and immerse himself in the serene natural surroundings. This setting allowed him to reflect on his observations, thoughts, and experiences, ultimately shaping the introspective and contemplative tone of his writing. He was also among the chief leaders of the Transcendental Movement in English literature (which lasted from about 1830 to 1860) that promoted self-education and the development of the individual. Transcendentalists strongly championed the idea that nature possesses a divine spirit that can help us connect to the rest of the world.

Charles Dickens

Charles Dickens is widely recognised as one of the greatest authors in history. Throughout his illustrious writing career, the English novelist penned a collection of timeless novels that continue to capture readers hearts. Some of his most beloved works include Oliver Twist, A Christmas Carol Nicholas Nickleby, David Copperfield, A Tale of Two Cities, and Great Expectations. These books form an impressive resume of literary gems. To create these literary treasures, Dickens insisted on writing at his familiar desk and chair. He firmly believed that his best work flowed from the comfort of his cherished writing space. In fact, he held such a strong attachment to his desk and chair that he would have them shipped to him when he ventured away from home for extended periods. Today, these iconic items are put on display at the Charles Dickens Museum, located at the authors former home in London.

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What is Vikram Seth famous for?

Vikram Seth is the author of "A Suitable Boy", one of the longest books ever published in English. As the literary world celebrates 30 years of "A Suitable Boy", let's read up on the Indian author who seamlessly shifts between different genres.

Indian author Vikram Seth is noted for his magnum opus "A Suitable Boy", one of the longest books ever published in English literature. And despite it running into more than a thousand pages, the book was widely celebrated and Seth made an indelible mark on the literary world.                 

Early life

Seth was born to Leila Seth (judge) and Prem Nath Seth (business executive), on June 20, 1952, in Kolkata, India. He was raised in London and India. After attending Indian schools, he graduated from Corpus Christi College, Oxford.

In 1978, he received a master’s degree in Economics from Stanford University and later studied classical Chinese poetry and languages at Nanjing University, China. He returned to India to live in New Delhi in 1987.

Writing career

Originally a poet, Seth is known for seamlessly shifting between different genres of writing and coming up with compelling works. Seth's first volume of poetry "Mappings" was published in 1980.

It was after he published the humorous travelogue "From Heaven Lake" (1983) that he gained critical attention. The story centred around his hitchhiking journey from Nanking to New Delhi via Tibet. The first novel to be published was "The Golden Gate". "All You Who Sleep Tonight.", "Beastly Tales from Here and There" and the poetry collections "The Poems, 1981-1994" (1995) and "Summer Requiem" (2015) are some of his other works.

"An Equal Music' (1999), a love story revolving around the world of professional musicians is yet another noted work of his. A lesser-known fact is Seth's musical acumen must have helped him in writing this piece. He was even commissioned to write a libretto (text of an opera) for the English National Opera in 1994. It was published as "Arion and the Dolphin". It is said that his work "Two Lives" is dear to his heart as it is part memoir, part family history. It revolves around the story of Seth's great aunt "Henny", a German Jew, and his Indian great uncle "Shanti".

Through the book he is not only retelling their story but also trying to find answers to the unique alliance between a German Jew (who lost her family in the Holocaust) and his great uncle who served in the Second World War.

Having travelled widely and lived in Britain, California, India and China, Seth drew inspiration from his experiences for his writing. His first novel "The Golden Gate: A Novel in Verse" (1986) revolves around a group of friends living in California. The book won the WH Smith Literary Award and the Commonwealth Writers Prize (Overall Winner, Best Book). He has also authored a travel book "From Heaven Lake: Travels Through Sinkiang and Tibet (1983)", which traces the journeys through Tibet, China and Nepal. It won the Thomas Cook Travel Book Award. "Beastly Tales from Here and There" (1992) is a children's book that has ten stories about animals which are told in verse. He has also translated the works of Chinese, German and Hindi poets.

A Suitable Boy

Seth turned to prose in "A Suitable Boy", exploring the relationships between four Indian families. The book is noted for its gripping narrative style. Despite the fact that "A Suitable Boy" ran to 1,349 pages, it didn't deter readers and sold over one million copies worldwide.

The author took some eight years to write "A Suitable Boy". Set in India around the time the country had gained independence, the book follows a mothers quest to find a suitable boy to marry her daughter Lata Mehra. It was critically acclaimed and was also made into a BBC mini-series by Mira Nair in 2020.

For the past few years, the literary world has been waiting with bated breath for a sequel to this book called "A Suitable Girl". The story is believed to be set in contemporary India, as our former protagonist Lata, now a grandmother, tries matchmaking for her grandson. As the wait for his next book continues, why don't you pick up "A Suitable Boy" and give it a read?

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What celebrities wrote book for children?

How can a writer's success be defined? If a writer can get a child hooked on their book from an early age, then we can assume that the writer has been successful. And then there are celebrities who took to writing children's fiction, attempting to connect with them. We take a look at some of these famous personalities.

What does one do after winning a gold medal at Paralympic games?  Well, if you were Ellie Robinson, you would write a children's book! It may not be the dream of many athletes to move away from the glam and glitter of the sports arena to that of the literary world. But that was just what Ellie Robinson did. And her debut novel "Gold Medal Mysteries: Thief on the Track" which was released recently has already received good reviews. The multi-medal-winning British swimmer retired from swimming after the Tokyo Paralympics in 2021. Now the athlete is dabbling in writing and her studies. She blends her love for history and sport in the book. According to the athlete, the book is all about personal development and life lessons, which the characters learn as the story progresses. Let's read up on other personalities who came up with children's books!

Paul McCartney

Most of us know Paul McCartney as the world famous rock superstar. But did you know that the former Beatle singer also wrote a book for children? Titled "Hey Grandude", the name Grandude being based on a nickname given to McCartney by one of his grandchildren, the book follows the adventures of a retired hippie who takes his grandkids on a wondrous journey. It is the relationship that McCartney shared with his grandkids that inspired him to create the book. While the title may make Beatle fans think of "Hey Jude", the book follows the fictional family as they take off on adventures, all thanks to the magic compass that the Grandude has which will let them travel anywhere! Another book he wrote for kids in Grandude's Green Submarine.

Whoopi Goldberg

Actress-comedian Whoopi Goldberg has carved herself a career in the entertainment industry. But children might know her best as the author of the "Sugar Plum Ballerinas" series. It is the first book of the Academy Award winner which revolves around a school of ballet. The setting is the "Nutcracker School of Ballet in Harlem where aspiring ballerinas learn to do the plié, and chassé turns. The protagonist is Alexandrea Petrakova Johnson, who is forced to join the school and leave her friends behind all because of her mother who wants her to be a ballerina. Soon she is chosen to be the Sugar Plum Fairy in the school recital and has a massive task at hand to tackle the challenges and perform. Apart from the books in the "Sugar Plum Ballerinas" series, "Alice" is another book written by the author for children.

Frank Lampard

How about reading a story that blends magic and football? When England footballer Frank Lampard turned to write fiction, he chose to bring in two of his favourite elements, the sport of football and history. And he chose to write for children. His first children's book "Frankie's Magic Football" followed the adventures of Frankie, a school boy and his friends who love football. The story delves not just into football but also offers nuggets of wisdom and life lessons. He touches upon themes such as fairplay, bravery, goals and so on in his book. The collection that follows Frankie's journey includes a plethora of books such as "Frankie vs The Pirate Pillagers", "Frankie vs The Rowdy Romans", "Frankie vs The Cowboy's Crew” and so on.

Serena Williams

Serena Williams revolutionised sports. Her style of play, talent and determination has turned her into a legend in women's tennis. But do you know what else makes her even more intriguing? The fact that she chose to write a book for children, a book centred around a little girl who starts to trust and believe in herself with the help of her doll "Qai Qai". William's first book "The Adventures of Qai Qai" was released in 2022. Qai Qai is inspired by William's daughter Olympia's doll. Williams had earlier mentioned how reading out a story was an important part of their (Williams and daughter) bedtime routine.

Tom Fletcher

Talk about musicians-turned-writers and you have many. While some have tried their hand at fiction, some have attempted to write children's books. Among them, musician Tom Fletcher has truly carved a niche for himself in the children's book category. Apart from being the lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist of the English pop rock band "McFly". Fletcher is into penning books for children. With the book "Christmasaurus", he made a giant splash in the literary world and slowly became one of the UK's most popular children's authors. His book “The Creakers" turned out to be a number-one bestseller. He is also noted for his bestselling picture books such as "There's a Monster in Your Book". "There's an Elf in Your Book", and "There's a Dragon in Your Book". The book he wrote with his bandmate titled "The Dinosaur That Pooped" sold over a million copies. His books have been translated into more than 30 languages.

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Who was Frances Hodgson Burnett? Which was his famous novel?

Frances Hodgson Burnett was born on November 24, 1849, in Manchester, England. Following the death of her father in 1854, her family faced financial hardships. In 1865, the family made the decision to immigrate to the U.S. and settled in New Market, a town near Knoxville, Tennessee. However, the anticipated support from a maternal uncle did not materialise as expected, adding further challenges to their situation.

Driven by the need to support her family, Burnett started writing for magazines at the age of 19. Her first published work was a short story called Surly Tim's Trouble, which appeared in a magazine in 1868. Burnett's breakthrough came with the publication of her novel Little Lord Fauntleroy in 1886, which garnered immense popularity and established her as a successful writer. She went on to write numerous novels, plays, and short stories, captivating readers with her vivid imagination and memorable characters. Some of her other notable works include A Little Princess (1905) and The Secret Garden (1911), both beloved classics in children's literature.

The Secret Garden

The Secret Garden novel was one of his popular novels. The novel centres around Mary Lennox, a 10-year-old girl living in India with her privileged British family. Mary is depicted as a self-centred and ill-tempered child, accustomed to being pampered by her domestic help while receiving little attention from her distant parents. However, her life takes a tragic turn when a cholera epidemic sweeps through the region, claiming the lives of her parents and the household staff, leaving her orphaned. After a short stay with an English clergyman's family, she is sent to live with her widowed uncle, Archibald Craven, at his Yorkshire estate, Misselthwaite Manor in England.

In the estate, Mary uncovers a fascinating neglected hidden garden. Assisted by Dickon, a local boy, and her cousin Colin, who suffers from a mysterious ailment, she begins to restore the garden to its former beauty.

What makes it a classic?

The healing power of nature

This novel highlights the enduring connection between humans and the natural world, and the positive impact that nature can have on our well-being. In today's fast-paced and technologically driven society, many people find themselves disconnected from nature, leading to increased stress, anxiety, and a sense of detachment. The theme of nature's healing power in the novel serves as a poignant reminder of the transformative influence that reconnecting with the natural world can have on us. The story emphasises the restorative qualities of spending time in nature, cultivating a garden, and embracing the outdoors. The process of tending to the garden becomes a metaphor for personal growth and emotional healing. Mary, Colin, and even Archibald finds inner peace, resilience, and a renewed zest for life as they immerse themselves in the natural beauty of the garden.

A novel about self-discovery

The Secret Garden is a captivating tale of self-discovery. Through the enchanting garden, characters such as Mary, Colin, and Archibald undergo transformative journeys. Mary learns empathy and love as she cares for the garden. Colin overcomes his fears and finds his own identity. Archibald finally musters the courage to confront the unresolved issues of his past, which he had been avoiding all this time and embraces healing. The garden serves as a metaphor for their inner landscapes, guiding them towards personal growth and fulfilment.

Their journeys demonstrate the profound impact self-reflection, connection with nature, and meaningful relationships can have in unlocking one's true potential and finding happiness.

Legal action against copycats

Frances Hodgson Burnett, the author of the beloved children's book The Little Lord Fauntleroy, did not back down when faced with piracy of her work. When an English playwright named E.B. Seebohm unlawfully adapted her book into a stage play, Burnett took him to court. The court ruled in her favour. declaring that Seebohm had illicitly copied portions of her book for his play. As a result, a legal order was granted, effectively putting an end to the era of British authors being exploited by copycats who freely profited from dramatising popular books.

In recognition of her efforts, Frances received a diamond bracelet and ring from The Society of British Authors, who also held a gala in her honour.


  • Originally published in 1910, The Secret Garden made its debut in the pages of The American Magazine, a publication primarily catering to adults. This unique start as a serialised story in a magazine for adults possibly led to some confusion regarding its target audience, as it became one of the first children's tales to appear in such a medium before being released as a standalone book.
  • The name "Mary" in The Secret Garden draws inspiration from the English nursery rhyme Mary. Mary, quite contrary. In the initial chapters of the book, the protagonist is portrayed as a rude and spoiled child. The other children mock her by reciting the nursery rhyme and referring to her as "Mistress Mary Quite Contrary". While Burnett initially considered using Mistress Mary as the working title for the book, she ultimately settled on The Secret Garden instead.

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Who was Emily Jane Bronte?

English novelist, Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights was the author’s first and last novel. It is widely considered by many as one of the most incredible pieces of imaginative literature in the English canon. Let's find out what makes it a classic.

About the author

Emily Jane Bronte was born on July 30, 1818, in Thornton, Yorkshire, England. She was the fifth of six children, and the fourth daughter of Patrick Bronte and Marie Branwell. Her father was a remarkable man and a minister of the Anglican church. The author lost her mother at the tender age of three. This was the first great loss the family had to come to terms with. In 1825, Emily was sent to join her sisters Maria, Elizabeth, and Charlotte at school. Following the tuberculosis epidemic at the institution that claimed the life of her two elder sisters, Emily and Charlotte returned home. This incident is also mentioned in her sister Charlotte's magnum opus Jane Eyre. Emily spent the next 10 years of her life at home, where she played, read extensively, and wrote together with her siblings in an inventive creative workshop. During one of such playful workshops, the four participated in fictional world-making, which resulted in Charlotte and their brother Branwell teaming together to create a fictional land called Angria, and Emily with her sister Anne inventing the fictional Pacific Island of Gondol.

Emily was a meticulous reader. Charlotte in her Preface to the 1850 edition of Wuthering Heights elucidated that her sister "always wrote from the impulse of nature". However, Professor Karen O'Brien from the University of Oxford says that Emily Bronte's lone novel is a testament to her extensive reading and understanding of the works of English poets and authors such as Sir Walter Scott, William Wordsworth, and Lord Byron. The first edition of Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights was written under the pseudonym Ellis Bell and published in 1847.

Wuthering Heights

Wuthering Heights is a powerful and complex story of love, obsession, and revenge over two generations. It is narrated by housekeeper Nelly Dean and framed from the perspective of a visiting outsider Mr. Lockwood. This narrative revolves around an orphan named Heathcliff, who is taken in by Mr. Earnshaw and brought to live in Wuthering Heights. The story explores the close-knit bond he forms with his patron's daughter Catherine.

What makes it a classic?

A treatise on women Social conventions were extremely important at the time when Bronte wrote this novel. Italian writer and journalist Italo Calvino, in his book The Uses of Literature, said. "A classic is a classic book because it had never finished what it had to say", and Wuthering Heights stands true to this statement. One might think of it as just a love story. Well yes, but it's also a story of ghosts, obsession, and haunting. Where Jane Austen, the Bronte sisters predecessor, wrote about the purpose of romance and how it was intangibly linked to or ended in marriage, Emily Bronte's sole novel is a treatise on women and tries to explore what is important to her gender other than the pursuit of marriage.

Making a statement

Through Wuthering Heights Emily Bronte changed what was possible and acceptable for women to write, and how women and men can be portrayed in fiction. Her characters challenged the social expectation that one's emotions and how they are expressed or dealt with must be dictated by an individual's gender. It advocated that all the things.

that we as people feel are not so different just because one is a man or a woman. It broke away from the tradition that dictated that women must only write about acceptable things (such as love and marriage) and elements of the domestic sphere. It objected to the idea that men (especially heroes) are not capable of emoting grief and passion or being allowed to display any negative emotions such as vengeance. Wuthering Heights is not a moralising novel and calls the hypocrisy of the society that divides people on the basis of gender, turns a blind eye to the violence it inflicts in the name of religion, set unrealistic moral expectations, and is more concerned with respectability, than working towards creating an equal society.

Emily Bronte's exceptional imagination in Wuthering Heights, says English author Kate Mosse, "makes it clear that a woman who is an artist and a man who is an artist have the same mission-to write what we think is true and to write what we think matters, this makes her sole novel one for the ages."

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Who is the best-selling author of all time?

Agatha Christie is famed as the best-selling author of all time, However, she was not the most prolific writer of her family. Agatha grew up with two older siblings, out of them, her older sister Margaret (nicknamed Madge) also pursued writing and was considered to be the more promising writer.

By 1916, Madge had already written and published a few short stories, while Agatha had not published any. So when the latter shared the idea of writing a mystery novel with Madge, her sister was not as enthusiastic. She bet that Agatha would not be able to craft a compelling mystery and it certainly would not be something she could not solve. Taking up the challenge, the 26-year-old Agatha got to work and wrote, what would become her debut mystery novel, The Mysterious Affair at Styles. Today, this novel stands alongside hundreds of mysteries Agatha crafted during her illustrious writing career.

Crafting a perfect mystery

Agatha Christie's stories are like a puzzle box full of clues, misdirection and drama. But what are the essential elements of crafting a perfect mystery?


One of the most important decisions while designing any story is choosing the setting. Whether it was a remote island or yacht or a snow-stalled train stall, the author would always favour eerie and isolated locations, a trend that most of her stories follow. By doing so she limited the movement of her characters and build tension by forcing these plausible suspects to stay put, with the killer lurking among them.

In some cases, she would heighten the drama by making the characters strangers, unsure of who they could trust.


As a keen observer of human behaviour, she would often use peculiar traits or habits of the people around her to create authentic characters. However, one of the most popular criticisms of her novels is her use of two-dimensional characters that would easily reflect the stereotypes of her time. Future writers are advised not to emulate this trait of hers.


It is a mystery writer's job to concoct stories that are complex and full of riddles and clues. Making it merely a balancing act between being clever and not confusing. The English author used simple, precise and accessible language to accomplish this task. The clarity of her language makes her stories palatable and engaging and can be credited with making her the 'Queen of mystery'.

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What kind of writer is Dominique Lapierre?

French author Dominique Lapierre used a mix of reportage and historical narrative to spin stories of everlasting appeal. As the "City of Joy" and the world mourns the loss of the writer, here's a recap of his life and times.

What separates a journalist from an activist? Where is that thin line that you cross over to become part of the story, rather than write the story? More often than not, journalists struggle with the sense of purpose when they report from a battlefield or during catastrophes being faced with the dilemma whether to help the victims or focus on reportage. French author Dominique Lapierre was in the midst of major political upheavals and poignant moments in history, whilst also reporting from war zones. When the journalist turned into an author, and turned these narratives into best-selling books, he ensured that a part of the royalties would be used for humanitarian work.

The literary world mourned as Lapierre breathed his last on December 4. Kolkata also wept, shedding tears with the world. The author who became a household name after he wrote the 1985 novel ‘The City of Joy’ was 91 when he passed away due to age-related issues. The news was confirmed by his wife Dominique Conchon-Lapierre.

Early years

Born on July 30, 1931, in Chatelaillon, France, Lapierre was born to a diplomat father and a journalist mother. He started off the journey as a writer by writing travelogues. He later started reporting for the weekly news magazine "Paris Match" in the 1950s.

Literary partnership

It was whilst he was serving in the French army that he met American Larry Collins. Lapierre was 23 then. Collins later became a journalist. The two subsequently formed a deep literary partnership that propelled them to churn out hugely successful novels.

Six bestselling books!

The collaborative literary works of Lapierre and Larry Collins saw immense success. In all, 50 million copies of the six books Lapierre wrote along with Collins have been sold. These six bestsellers are O Jerusalem! (1972); Freedom at Midnight (1975); Is Paris Burning? (1965), The Fifth Horseman (1980); Is New York Burning? (2005); and Or I'll Dress You In Mourning (1968).

Lapierre's ode to India

 Lapierre always had a special connection with India. He showed his love for India even through his memoir, India mon amour (2010). But it was his novel The City of Joy that made him popular with the Indian crowd. The story revolves around the experiences of a rickshaw puller. In a PTI interview, Lapierre had said that the novel was like his "song of love for India, the place where I have been coming very regularly since the last 50 years. It has been an emotional journey for me where I have got a lot of love and support from the people".

Five Past Midnight in Bhopal: The Epic Story of the World's Deadliest Industrial Disaster (1997) is yet another book written by him. This was an investigative account of the 1984 Bhopal gas tragedy based on three years of research and interaction with survivors. This he wrote in collaboration with Javier Moro. In 2008, he was awarded India's third-highest civilian award, the Padma Bhushan.

A humanitarian

Lapierre was all about writing with a purpose. As a writer and journalist, he leaves behind a legacy. What we know is that Lapierre didn't stop with documenting the injustices but also tried his bit to address them.

His humanism is evident in how he founded the "City of Joy Aid", a non-profit humanitarian organisation based in Kolkata in 1981. He donated a large share of his royalties to support humanitarian projects. He supported many charitable projects in India such as refuge centres for children affected with polio, NGOs, schools, rehabilitation workshops, education programmes, and so on. Likewise, the royalties from the sale of the book on the Bhopal gas tragedy were used to give free medical treatment to the victims of the disaster.

Books to movies

Is Paris Burning? and The City of Joy were later made into movies by René Clément in 1966 and Roland Joffé in 1992 respectively.

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What does Jane Austen say in her novel Emma?

English author Jane Austen's novels employ wit and humour to decipher the sheltered lives of the upper classes in rural England. Her novel Emma explores the baffling collision of emotions and etiquette. Let us revisit this story and see what makes it a classic.

About the author

Jane Austen was born December 16, 1775, in Steventon, Hampshire, England. She was the second daughter and seventh child of Reverend George Austen and Cassandra Leigh Austen. Her father was a rector and a scholar who encouraged and inculcated a love for learning in his children. The authors mother was a woman of quick wit, popular for her impromptu stories in her circles. Austen shared a special bond with her elder sister Cassandra, who was her lifelong companion as neither of them married. She was mostly homeschooled by her father and brothers due to the poor financial condition of the family. However, as an avid reader, she grew up perusing classics by William Shakespeare, John Milton, Alexander Pope, David Hume, and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

Jane Austen began writing at a very young age. She finished early drafts of Sense and Sensibility and Pride and Prejudice in the late 1790s. Her novels shed light on distinct expectations of a woman's proper role in society and studied the frustrations of her gender, in a society that saw no use for their talents.

Long considered the English authors most perfectly executed novel, Emma is the only one of her books that is named after its heroine. Published in 1815, this titular protagonist is the first and the only one of Jane Austen's heroines who has something close to power. Emma Woodhouse is generous, smart, rich and in the prime of her youth. She had lost her mother at a very tender her sister is married off, and her father is completely dependent on her. So, she age, runs the household and has the liberty to act according to her will. The novel, many critics argue, is Austen's homage to Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream and chronicles Emma's near-disastrous meddling in the lives of others. Austen famously said this about her heroine Emma Woodhouse "a heroine whom no one but myself will much like".

The mould of a heroine

What is a heroine? All six of Jane Austen's novels teasingly ask this question. The formulation of a typical heroine of the 19th Century as described by Austen was "Heroine, a faultless character herself - perfectly good, with much tenderness and sentiment, and not the least Wit". Heroines that dominated the English novel before and in Austen's time had to be morally impeccable. Breaking away from the trope of the pious heroine, Austen, through her rebellious, mischievous, and flawed female protagonists, broke the unrealistic societal expectations that forced women to lead their lives as pictures of perfection.

The Artistry

One thing about Jane Austen's writing style that sets her apart from her contemporaries is her way of narrating the story through the consciousness of the characters. Modern novelists call it free-indirect speech. Although Austen didn't invent this technique, according to Austen scholar Juliette Wells, "she's certainly the one who took it the farthest and established its primacy, its necessariness."

According to English critic John Mullon, the most sophisticated use of this technique can be observed in Emma, where most of the novel is seen through the eyes of a heroine who is mostly wrong about everything. So while reading it one is sharing her delusions and misjudgement.

This technique makes us as readers fall in love with Austen's characters for their humanity and the capacity to make mistakes and learn from them.

Janet Todd, Professor Emerita from the University of Cambridge, said, "Emma is the culmination of her career and it is the cleverest, the most subtle and the one in which she thinks about her artistry as well as putting artistry into the book.... think it is her masterpiece."

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Why is Frankenstein novel still relevant more than 200 years after it was written?

More than 200 years after its first publication, English author Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein; or The Modern Prometheus is still discussed and lauded for its cultural and scientific impact on our world. Let us find out why.

About the author

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley was born in London. England on August 30, 1797. Her father was an author named William Godwin and her mother was Mary Wollstonecraft, one of the most popular early feminists, who wrote the influential book A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) and championed the cause of women's education and equal rights. She, sadly, passed away 11 days after giving birth to Mary.

This devastating event heavily influenced Mary Shelley's writing. Many critics even argue that a biological reading of her magnum opus Frankenstein: or. The Modem Prometheus can help one look at it as a story of a monstrous or disastrous birth. Mary first met P.B. Shelley, her future husband and one of the greatest lyric poets of the age, when she was 14. The poet had come to consult her father after being thrown out of Oxford for writing the essay. The Necessity of Atheism.

The contest and the dream

While on vacation in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1816 with her husband, her stepsister Claire Clairemont, English poet Lord Byron and his doctor, 18-year-old Mary wrote the story of Victor Frankenstein in a friendly novel writing competition that ensued among her peers. Her novel Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, was first in 1818 anonymously in London.

In the introduction of the 1831 edition of the novel, the author explained that she wanted to write a story that would "speak to the mysterious fears of our nature and awaken thrilling horror. But what really helped her create a narrative around this idea was a conversation she overheard between her husband and Lord Byron, on the new developments in electricity and whether it can possibly be used to bring the dead back to life. That night she had a waking dream of, "a pale student" kneeling next to the monster he had put together.

Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus

Recognised as one of the greatest gothic novels, this book traces Italian Swiss scientist Victor Frankenstein's futile quest to impart and sustain life using scientific means. Plagued by unbridled curiosity, he creates this monster part by part from different corpses and electrifies it into a conscious being. Upon completing the experiment, however, Frankenstein, appalled by his creation, abandons it and flees. Rejected by his creator, the nameless monster wanders into the wilderness, where he takes shelter and eventually learns to read and write. The plot of this story is the chilling chase between the creator and his creation.

What makes it a classic?

The Modern Prometheus

In Greek mythology, Prometheus is a Titan god of fire. He is best known as the ethereal figure who stole fire from the gods and gave it to mankind and was sentenced to eternal torment by Zeus for this act of disobedience. The authors mention of this figure in the subtitle alludes to her reimagining of what a modern and scientific Prometheus would be like. Through the character of Victor Frankenstein, she explores the jarring and tragic consequences of humans trying to play god.

Perils of being an irresponsible parent

The endurance of Frankenstein can also be attributed to its emphasis on the perils of being an irresponsible parent. A child's behaviour is directly related to the quality of parenting he or she has received. This justifies why Frankenstein's monster is looking for his creator to wreak his revenge for the neglect he feels that he has experienced.

"Did I request thee, Maker, from my clay To mould me Man, did I solicit thee From darkness to promote me?"

Paradise Lost by John Milton Mary Shelley's choice to include these lines spoken by Adam in John Milton's Paradise Lost, in her novel's epigraph helps promote the idea of scientific responsibility. The transformation of the creature from a benevolent being to a murderous fiend because of his master's rejection and failure to take any responsibility can be understood, as Mary Shelley's warning against the single-minded pursuit of science without an accompanying concern about morality. The tension between Frankenstein and his creation represents the struggles among a parent and child, science, and morality. This story acts as a warning to treat all living things with respect.

Corruption of nature

Romanticism was a movement in 18th-Century literature that promoted the idea of purity in art, and inspiration in nature. It surfaced as a response to spreading industrialisation and scientific developments. Mary's novel as a text from this period acts as a cautionary tale that narrates the dangerous consequences of the corruption of nature in the quest for glory.

More than 200 years after its publication, Frankenstein's monster lives on in our collective consciousness as a disfigured mirror of the natural cycle of life and as a warming to not tamper with the laws of nature.

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