The hamburger first appeared in the 19th or early 20th century. The modern hamburger was a product of the culinary needs of a society rapidly changing due to industrialization and the emergence of the working class and the middle class with the resulting demand for mass-produced, affordable food that could be consumed outside of the home.

Considerable evidence suggests that either the United States or Germany (the city of Hamburg) was the first country where two slices of bread and a ground beef steak were combined into a "hamburger sandwich" and sold. There is some controversy over the origin of the hamburger because its two basic ingredients, bread and beef, had been prepared and consumed separately for many years in different countries before their combination. Shortly after its creation, the hamburger quickly included all of its currently typically characteristic trimmings, including onions, lettuce, and sliced pickles.

After various controversies in the 20th century, including a nutritional controversy in the late 1990s, the burger is now readily identified with the United States, and a particular style of cuisine, namely fast food. Along with fried chicken and apple pie, the hamburger has become a culinary icon in the United States.

The hamburger's international popularity demonstrates the larger globalization of food  that also includes the rise in global popularity of other national dishes, including the Italian pizza, Chinese fried rice and Japanese sushi. The hamburger has spread from continent to continent perhaps because it matches familiar elements in different culinary cultures. This global culinary culture has been produced, in part, by the concept of selling processed food, first launched in the 1920s by the White Castle restaurant chain and its founder Edgar Waldo "Billy" Ingram and then refined by McDonald's in the 1940s.This global expansion provides economic points of comparison like the Big Mac Index, by which one can compare the purchasing power of different countries where the Big Mac hamburger is sold.

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Loganberries are a cross between raspberries and blackberries. The loganberry (Rubus loganobaccus) was created in 1881 in California by American judge and horticulturist James Harvey Logan, when he planted two blackberry plants next to a raspberry plant, all of which flowered and fruited together. The 50 seedlings produced from this mix gave rise to larger plants, one of which was the loganberry. The deep red, conical shaped loganberries are rich in vitamins and minerals. They are processed into juice, syrup, frozen for jams or used for wine-making.

Loganberry plants are sturdy and more disease- and frost-resistant than many other berries. However, they are not very popular with commercial growers due to several problems which increase labor costs, since the plants tend to be thorny and the berries are often hidden by the leaves. Additionally, berries of varying maturity may grow on a single plant, making it difficult to completely harvest each plant. Loganberries are therefore more commonly grown in household gardens.

Loganberries are consumed fresh, or used for juice or in jams, pies, crumbles, fruit syrups, and country wines.

In the UK, fresh or canned (tinned) loganberries are often paired with English Sherry trifle, or their juice (or syrup) paired with the sherry.

Loganberry is a popular beverage flavoring in Western New York and parts of Southern Ontario, beginning there as a drink sold at Crystal Beach Park in Crystal Beach, Ontario. Even though the park has long been closed down, several companies still sell varieties of loganberry drinks through stores throughout the area, which are sold at several local fast-food franchises such as Mighty Taco in Buffalo, Sport of Kings Restaurant in Batavia, New York as well as at supermarkets. There are also milkshakes flavored with loganberry syrup.

Credit : Wikipedia 

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How about a career in food anthropology?

Everyone loves a good biryani. But did you know that the fragrant rice has a long and complicated history, going all the way back to ancient Iran and traders on the spice route? From the floating markets of Bangkok, to the Tunday kebab corners of Lucknow, food can give us pertinent clues into the ways humans evolved and culture emerged. Believe it or not, there is an entire field devoted to tracing the origins of food, understanding its cultural context, and documenting its evolution. So if you have an appetite for both food and its lore, take a bite of food anthropology.

What is food anthropology?

Food anthropology is a sub-discipline of anthropology. Sidney Mintz known as the Father of Food Anthropology, cemented the study of food as a key insight into modern social life. His work "Sweetness and Power" (1985) linked British demand for sugar with the creation of empire and exploitative industrial labour conditions.

Food anthropologists investigate how people lived in the past by studying what they ate. They trace the traditions and techniques that are part of the culinary heritage. Food anthropology can reveal everything from how humans travelled long distances in ancient times to the emergence of different empires and power relationships. Food anthropology is an emerging field in India.

What are the job prospects?

Food anthropologists blog, write books on food history, and contribute columns to newspapers. Five-star hotels often bring them on board as consultants while preparing a new menu or exploring new cuisines. Food anthropologists could even get a chance to host their own food travel shows. A degree in Food Anthropology can also help you work in the field of food production.

Required skills

  • A love for food and history is, needless to say, a must.

  • Communication skills and writing skills are equally important.

  • You need to be able to keep yourself updated on the latest food trends.

  • Observational skills

  • Ability to make incisive commentary.

What to study

To become a food anthropologist you need to be well-versed with history and culture. So an undergraduate and postgraduate course in History is recommended. Food anthropology is covered as a module in history courses in Indian universities. Some universities have a Bachelors or a Masters in Food Studies, which provides cultural, historical, and sociological aspects of food. Where: India:

  • St. Xaviers College,, Mumbai: M.A. in Ancient Indian History, Culture and Archaeology

  • Ashoka University. Haryana: B.A. Hons. History


  • School of African and Oriental Studies, University of London, the U.K.: Masters in Food Anthropology

  • College of Social Sciences, University of Exeter, the U.K.: M.A. in Food Studies

  • Indiana University Bloomington, the U.S.: B.A. in Anthropology of Food

  • Brown University, the U.S.: Offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses in Food Studies.


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