What is the theme of the Teachers Day celebration?

Teaching is one of the noblest professions And a teacher is the biggest cheerleader of a shutent But teaching is also a thankless job. This Teachers Day lets read up on a few ways to make your teachers feel appreciated and values.

Celebrate Teachers Day

This may seem like the most obvious of all the things you ou do to make a teacher feel appreciated Indeed, how else to appreciate teachers than celebrating them? Teachers Day falls on September 5 So go ahead and make them feel special on this day You can write a note, make a cant make a speech, or even hold a small activity where you can share how your teacher has made an impact on your life. A heartfelt thank you will be sufficient for the teachers. Throwing such a surprise celebratory event is sure to make your teacher feel highly appreciated and valued. PHOTO R. RAGU/THE HINDU

Form study groups

Ever thought of helping out your peers? A teacher cannot always give attention to all the children in the class equally. Remember that theorem the maths teacher taught that you could quickly grasp but which turned out to be a tough nut to crack for most of the students? How about helping out the students and teaching them instead of waiting for the teacher to explain it again in the next class? You can easily form a study group and either use a free penod or vase the break to teach the students. If you are academically good, you can also form a study group to help the students who fair poorly in their academics. This will be beneficial for the students as well as the teacher and is one way to help your teacher. By teaching a concept you will also get thorough with it. This is because you have to fully understand something to be able to explain it to someone else. PHOTO: RAD GN

Say Thank You

We often undermine the power of a simple Thank You A heartfelt thank you is sometimes enough to warm the cockles of the heart of another person. So go ahead and say thank you to the teacher. You can share how much you appreciate them by either writing a letter, using a hand-drawn picture or just walking up to them and saying thank you Any small gesture will be appreciated by them. PHOTO: A.M. FARUQUI

Talk proudly about them Every individual needs praise. This helps them know that whatever they are doing is appreciated. While teachers may not necessarily need reassurance and validation, having chosen one of the thankless yet wholly satisfying professions themselves, it will definitely make a difference if you can make them feel appreciated. Talk about your teachers to your parents, friends, and even their parents. Praise their efforts and complement them wherever you can.


Everyone can use a little bit of help. And this includes teachers as well. Be ready to volunteer whenever some extra activity comes up in class. For instance, if there is an activity happening in the class where you can pitch in with your services, make sure you offer to volunteer. It may be as simple as rearranging the desks or washing the beakers in the lab or as taxing as helping with the organising of class programmes. In short, be helpful in class and the extra effort will definitely be appreciated by the teacher.

Be attentive in class

Nothing will make a teacher feel appreciated than a student who is highly attentive and responsive in class. Be a good student and always ask questions if you don't understand something.

Participating in class means that you are taking extra effort to focus on the topic being taught. Further, you will also have fewer chances of getting distracted or missing out on any topic on account of sitting farther from the chalkboard. Being attentive in class ensures that you understand concepts well and a teacher will surely feel appreciated seeing a class packed with students eager to learn.

Become a good, successful individual

 One of the most heart warming things for a teacher is to see their stulent coming out with flying colours not only during exams but in life as well. That's the biggest and loudest thank you any student can ever offer to a teacher. So go ahead, be attentive in class, do your best at academics. be good at extracurriculars, and become a goodl human being. Make sure you are consistent, and put in the time and effort to bring: your best self out at eams, extra-curricular, and even otherwise PHOTO ANI PHOTO/SANJAY SHARMA

Be up to date with homework and classwork

Students who finish their homework and assignments on time and who are always ready by bringing specific textbooks or workbooks to class is the dream of any teacher. If you finish all your homework on time, as stipulated by the teacher, not only does it benefit you by being academically up to date with what is being taught in the class but it ensures that you are prepared for the class and eventually, the exams. Further, it also helps the teacher as precious time gets wasted when children come unprepared for the classes. PHOTO: GETTY IMAGES/ISTOCKPHOTO

Picture Credit: Google


Fiternational Coffee Day is more than just a celebration of a popular beverage its a global recognition of the diverse calluns, economies, and sustainability efforts assodant with coffee. This day serves as a reminder of the millions of individuals who work tirelessly to bring coffee from hean to cup. As we raise a toast to this belowe drink on Cictober 1 lets also take a moment to appreciate the traditions ad compitens that male caffee a symbol of connection and community ammoud the world.

While many countries observe national coffee days at different times of the year, the International Coffee Organization (ICO) officially declared October 1st as International Coffee Day in 2015. The ICO, which comprises 77 member states, dedicated the day to celebrating coffee's diversity, quality, and the millions of people involved in its production and trade.

The day is a wonderful opportunity to enjoy a cup of joe and celebrate with fellow connoisseurs worldwide. The choice of October 1st as the date for this celebration was not arbitrary. It was chosen to coincide with the start of the coffee harvesting season in many coffee-producing countries, Since its inception, this annual event has grown in popularity and significance, highlighting coffee's global reach and influence.

Though Coffee's birthplace is considered to be Kefa in Ethiopia, by the 15th century it was placed under cultivation in Arabia. Its popularity grew amongst the Arabs, and became the quintessence of cultural bonding, via the coffeehouse. By the 16th and 17th centuries, coffee slowly got its entry into European countries, which started flourishing by the 17th century across Britain, the British colonies in America, and continental Europe. Before the 17th century ended, Yemen's southern province was the only source of coffee in the world. However, due to the beverage's rising popularity, the plant quickly spread to Java and other islands in the Indonesian archipelago during the 17th century, and to the Americas during the 18th century.

In 1825, coffee cultivation was initiated in the Hawaiian Islands. During the 20th century, the highest amount of coffee production was focused in Brazil. Coffee is cultivated in regions near the equator, commonly referred to as the bean belt. Due to their favorable equatorial climates that make them ideal for coffee production, countries like Brazil, Columbia, Ethiopia, Indonesia, and Vietnam, spread across three continents, are considered coffee capitals.

Brazil stands out as the world's primary exporter of coffee beans, accounting for 45% of all coffee bean exports globally. On the other hand, the US tops the list as the world's largest importer of coffee. Finland is considered the coffee capital of the world, though it doesn't produce any, due to its long-standing relationship with coffee, dating back to the 19th century when the country was under Russian rule. After gaining independence in 1917, Finland embraced Western customs and traditions. In contrast to Russia's preference for tea, Finns opted to challenge the norm and consume coffee instead.


When it comes to coffee, the type of bean used plays a big role in determining the flavour. For a coffee aficionado or someone who is beginning to explore the specialities of coffee, knowing the differences between types of coffee beans can help in finding the perfect brew to suit the taste.

Growing coffee beans is a complex process that requires significant effort. Unlike crops like corn or soybeans that can be rotated annually, coffee plants can take up to five years to produce fruit and around ten years before they're ready for commercial harvesting. However, once they begin producing, they can continue to do so for up to 30 years, so choosing the right type of plant is crucial for planters. There are two main types of coffee plants that provide the world's coffee supply: Coffea arabica and C. canephora. Arabica coffee is known for its mild, flavourful, and aromatic qualities, while Robusta coffee, which comes from the main variety of C. canephora, has a less complex taste.

The Arabica bean is flatter and more elongated, but also more fragile and vulnerable to pests. It requires a cool subtropical climate and grows at higher elevations of 2,000-6,500 feet.

Arabica coffee needs a lot of moisture and specific shade requirements. Arabica plants are currently grown in over 50 equatorial countries, and the beans' taste and aroma differ significantly between nations and regions. It is commonly produced in Latin America, eastern Africa, Asia, and Arabia.

On the other hand, Robusta coffee has a rounder, more convex bean and is hardier. It can grow at lower altitudes from sea level to 2,000 feet.

Robusta coffee is cheaper to produce and has twice the caffeine content of Arabica. It is often used in commercial coffee brands, ie, the instant coffee that is less expensive. Major producers of Robusta coffee are Western and Central Africa, Southeast Asia, and Brazil.

Liberica and Excelsa are the less preferred coffee beans which were in existence earlier. Liberica coffee beans are rare and have a unique "woody" taste. They became popular when a plant disease called "coffee rust' wiped out Arabica plants worldwide. The Philippines were the first to harvest Liberica, but when they declared independence, the U.S. imposed sanctions, causing the beans to almost disappear from markets.

Excelsa is the newest type of coffee bean and is mostly grown in Southeast Asia. It has a fruity, tart flavour and combines the attributes of both light and dark roast coffees.

Picture Credit : Google

What is the significance of celebrating water Day on 22nd March every year?

While World Water Day (March 22) is a celebration of an invaluable resource, it is also a stark reminder of the need to conserve it and ensure everyone has access to it.

Water, water everywhere, but...

Given the number of waterbodies on Earth and their vastness, water shouldn't be a concern for us, right? Well, despite covering more than two-thirds of our planet, most of these waterbodies about 97 %-are oceans, meaning it's all saltwater, which we cannot use. Not all of the remaining 3% of freshwater is available to us either because much of it is trapped in glaciers, icebergs, etc. Which is why we have very little freshwater globally from rain and rivers. While climate change-induced global warming is the cause of a lot of our water problems today, poor global water management too is a reason that many people do not have access to clean water. And it is this aspect that this year’s World Water Day seeks to draw our attention to water and sanitation crisis.

What is water and sanitation crisis?

Most of us have access to clean water-all we have to do is just open a tap (at home at school, and at most places we may travel to). But this is not a common scenario for everyone in the world. In some countries, and even in many places in our own country, people do not have access to clean water. According to the UN, 1 person out of 10 does not have access to safe water, and 1 out of 4 lacks access to a toilet. Especially in rural areas and dry regions, people-invariably women and girls - walk afar (often trudging for hours) to fetch pots of water for drinking, cooking, and bathing. This very act can steal several hours a day from them, denying women time for themselves or time that can be used for income-generating work to empower themselves. Children could end up not having time to go to school, costing them their education, and may not have time for playing either. In fact, travelling to remote places to fetch water can put women and children in unsafe places, endangering them. And, when water becomes a luxury, priority is likely to be accorded to drinking, cooking, etc., leaving very little to be used for bathing, washing, etc. When residential houses do not have toilets, people may resort to open defecation, which could lead to health concerns Also, if schools do not have toilets, girls may choose to skip school, particularly during menstruation. Further, if the water available is not safe or clean enough for use, it could lead to disease, if the only earning member of a less privileged family loses their livelihood or life to a disease, it could trigger the collapse of that entire family.

The focus this year

The focus of 2023's World Water Day is on "accelerating change to solve the water and sanitation crisis". This is also closely linked to U.N.'s Sustainable Development Goal No. 6-"Clean Water and Sanitation”. To take this message across to everyone globally, the UN has launched "Be The Change", a campaign that "encourages people to take action in their own lives to change the way they use, consume and manage water”. It helps us see how small actions matter (see box below). While it is important for governments the world over to initiate steps at international and national levels to conserve water, each of us, irrespective of our age or gender, has it in us to make a difference When we are judicious with the use of our resources, including water, everyone may have access to that resource, quietly ensuring equity in our world.

Picture Credit : Google 

Which day is observed as World Zoonoses Day?

World Zoonoses Day is observed every July 6-a time to examine the invisible dangers emerging from the animal world. In this five-point explainer, let's learn about zoonoses and the risk to public health caused by infections spreading from animals to humans.

World Zoonoses Day

In the 1880s, nine-year-old Joseph Meister was bit by a rabid dog in Alsace, France. It was a time when rabies meant death - a terrible one. The victim would sufferflu-like symptoms, progress to anxiety, confusion, and hydrophobia, the fear of water. Naturally, they would refuse to drink water, and death from dehydration was imminent. In desperation, on the advice of their doctor, Meister's parents approached a local scientist who was working on a rabies vaccine. He was none other than Louis Pasteur, and when young Meister was bought in, the former saw his opportunity to use a human test subject, after seeing positive results on dogs. After consulting fellow scientists Alfred Vulpian and Jacques-Joseph Grancher, on July 6, 1885, Pasteur administered the vaccine. To everyone's surprise, the boy made a complete recovery. It is to commemorate Pasteur’s contribution that July 6 is observed as World Zoonoses Day.

Animals-to-human route

Do you know what's common to Sars CoV-2, Ebola, HIV AIDS, SARS, MERS, Nipah, H1N1 (swine flu), and H5N1 (bird flu)? All of these are zoonotic diseases-meaning they are all animal-borne. Zoonoses have different modes of transmission. In direct zoonosis, the disease is transmitted from animals to humans through air, bites, or saliva. In indirect zoonoses, the transmission occurs via an intermediate species (referred to as a vector), which carries the disease pathogen. These pathogens can be viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Though the world has seen the emergence of diseases throughout history, in the last 50 years, a host of new infectious diseases has spread rapidly after making the evolutionary jump from animals to humans. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), 70% of emerging human pathogens come from animals. In the last century, at least 10 infectious diseases jumped from animals to humans.

What's driving the spike?

Globalisation, urbanisation, deforestation, encroachment of wild environments, human-animal conflicts, and wildlife trade have led to the spike in zoonosis outbreaks. Experts have also warned that the risk of global pandemics is growing and that zoonotic diseases will continue to emerge and re-emerge. New infectious diseases are a sign of how the world is changing. The more we change the environment, the more we disrupt ecosystems and provide opportunities for diseases to emerge.

Major factors

  • Deforestation and human-animal conflict:  Clearing of forests may bring wildlife out of the forest to nearby human settlement. Many vines east harmlessly with their host animals in forests because the animals have co-evolved with them. But humans can become unwitting hosts for these pathogens when they venture into or change forest habitat and come in contact with the host animals directly or indirectly. New infections can spread rapidly in big cities as population density is higher and people breathe the same air and touch the same surfaces.
  • Wildlife trade: Wildlife trade increases the chances of human animal contact, putting humans at the risk of contracting diseases. For instance, SARS was linked to wildlife trade and eating of wildlife. People who handled, killed and sold wild animals made up nearly 40% of the first cases. Poorly regulated wet markets (a market selling fresh meat, poultry, and other perishable goods) and illegal wildlife trade offer a unique opportunity for viruses to spill over from wildlife hosts into the human population. Bird Ju-H7N9 and HSN9-too originated in wet markets.
  • Mobility of people: Increased movement of people, faster transport and international travel, and greater interconnectivity among megacities pose greater risks of disease transmission.
  • Climate change: Climate change is altering the way animals live and eat. For instance, unusually heavy rains may create favourable environments for bats hosting the virus to reproduce and multiply. Similarly, food scarcity brought about by drought, may lead to more bushmeat hunting, raising the risk of outbreaks such as Ebola. In the American Southwest, years of drought led to a boom in rodent populations. This led to the deadly hantavirus outbreak in 1993.

Readying for the future

With potential for more zoonotic diseases to emerge in the future, WHO has called for a multisectoral "One Health" approach to address this complex heath threat. In 2019, the Tripartite organisations- the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), WHO, and the World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH) - developed the Tripartite Zoonoses Guide, which was the summation of a global effort of more than 100 experts worldwide to provide guidance and explain best practices for addressing zoonotic diseases in countries. Operational tools have also been developed for assessment, surveillance, and sharing of information by nations.

Picture Credit : Google

Which day is celebrated on 22 May?

The International Day for Biological Diversity that falls on May 22 is a call for us to celebrate the variety of life around us. Through this annual event, the United Nations also seeks to draw our attention to the need for conserving all these life forms and safeguarding our environment as a whole

May 22 every year     

The United Nations Convention of Biological Diversity came into effect on December 29 1993, and the U.N. initially designated it The International Day for Biological Diversity. However, in 2000, it was changed to May 22 to coincide with the date of the adoption of the text of the Convention. The change was also partly because in several nations. December 29 is part of the holiday season, making it difficult for related activities to be held. Though the dates changed, the aim of the day has not "to increase understanding and awareness of biodiversity issues".

The theme this year

For more than two decades, each year has had a theme. This years is "From Agreement to Action: Build Back Biodiversity". It is tied to the 2022 United Nations Biodiversity Conference (COP15). Among others, the two-week-long conference held in Montreal, Canada led to a landmark international agreement for protecting 30% of land and oceans by 2030 and the adoption of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF). "The GBF aims to address biodiversity loss, restore ecosystems and protect indigenous rights." The theme encourages all those involved from governments to individuals to get started on the actions as agreed, or if the action has begun already, to publicise and hightlight them so it can inspire and guide others.

What is biodiversity?

Observe the small parcel of open land in your street corner. What do you see? Different types of plants, trees, flowers, fruits, birds, bees, butterflies, spiders, garden lizards, dragonflies, and plenty more? This variety of living creatures found in any place-from a small stream to vast expanses of deserts and oceans - is called biodiversity. Every organism, small or large or invisible to our eye, has a role to play in our ecosystems, and the loss of even one species can cause problems to that ecosystem and the creatures inhabiting it. Which is why biodiversity is very crucial for the planet and even us humans.

Factors causing biodiversity loss

  • invasive species
  • Pollution
  • Climate change
  • Habitat loss
  • Overexploitation of natural resources
  • Infrastructure development
  • Construction of dams
  • Natural disasters

How can we help?

• Choose a sustainable lifestyle by buying local products, using cloth bags, walking or bicycling, etc. • Set up terrace or community gardens and raise native fruits and vegetables

• Educate yourself about invasive species and work with local communities to eliminate such species.

 • Talk to local government bodies to improve the condition of nearby rivers, parks, etc.

• Get together a group of like-minded students to create biodiversity awareness in your neighbourhood.

• Interact with environmentalists in your area and find out how to build back biodiversity. Remember, it's not too late!

Picture Credit : Google 

What's celebrated on 16th October?

World Food Day is celebrated annually on 16 October to promote global awareness and action for those who suffer from hunger and to highlight the need to ensure healthy diets for all. World Food Day (October 16) just passed us by. The day focusses on aspects such as hunger, food accessibility, and eating what is healthy for both you as an individual and the planet as a whole. Here are a few simple ways in which your food habits can be kind to Earth.

Understand the food system

The food system collectively refers to the processes involved -from food production, packaging, and transportation to consumption. In simple terms, it is the journey of how the food reaches you. But it is also much more than that- it focusses on aspects such as food cost, affordability, sustainability, waste, its impact on the environment and the people, etc. Understanding food systems help you make sensible choices. For instance, when you trace the origin of an imported food item, you may learn that it has travelled from another continent, wrapped in plastic, perhaps losing its nutrition along the way, and costing exponentially more than what it cost in its place of origin.

Eat local and seasonal foods

Anything produced locally and during the right season has more nutrition and flavour because the time between production and consumption is less when compared to something that has been brought from far or harvested long ago. Seasonal foods also offer health benefits. Many vegetables and fruits-such as watermelon that grow in summer have high water content just perfect to keep us hydrated. Similarly, some of the fruits and vegetables - such as oranges and lemons are rich in vitamins and offer protection against viral infections such as cold that can happen during winter.

Decrease waste

Right from purchasing to consumption, we have several opportunities to eliminate or at least decrease waste. For instance, buying only the food item that we need rather than go in for impulse buying, buying the required quantity, storing the item carefully, and using the exact amount we require. At home and outside, it is good to have small portions on our plates. One can go in for a second helping after completing the first portion rather than load up the plate with a lot. Also, just because a fruit or vegetable looks misshapen, it does not mean it is rotten and must be discarded. They will certainly pass the nutrition test! Remember to bring back your excess food from restaurants in your own containers, and use the left over later.

Sustainable eating

Sustainable eating habits cannot happen overnight. Talk to your family members, pick one day every week when the food you consume is planet-friendly and all meals are prepared at home from scratch. The ways to ensure these are by going in for local and seasonal food, produce that require less water and are grown using eco-friendly methods, using diverse items from fruits and vegetables to a variety of grains, etc. In addition, vegetable and fruit peels can be utilised for making compost. Once these become easy to follow, gradually every day will turn into 'Sustainable Eating day!

Grow your own food

It has been proved that processed food can lead to a range of health issues from obesity to cancer. The more you prepare your own food, the better it is for your health. One way of knowing what you eat is by growing your own organic food at home. With a little thought and effort you can raise anything from cilantro, ginger, and chillies to okra, and pumpkin. Use kitchen waste water-such as ones used to wash rice and lentils- to water these plants. Such steps also help you connect with nature, and become aware of ways in which you can lead a sustainable life.


  • The World Food Day commemorates the date of the founding of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO).
  • While FAO was established in 1945, World Food Day was set up in 1979.
  • Two years after that, it introduced a theme. There has been a theme every year since then. The theme for 2022 is "Leave NO ONE behind".
  • The United Nations states that enough food is being produced for everyone in the world. The hunger and poverty that happens is largely due to the lack of access.

Picture Credit : Google 

Which day is known as World Photography Day? How can you take good pictures during the day?

Celebrating these qualities of the art form, World Photography Day is observed annually on August 19. The day celebrates the art of clicking pictures, the technology behind it, and its history.

A picture speaks more than a thousand words. This is an old phrase that has immense truth in it. An image is not a mere frame or composition, but a reality. Today, people are crazy about taking photographs and want to share them instantly on Facebook Stories, Instagram Reels or WhatsApp Status. When we take an image, we also capture the reality which turns into a historical reality in the future. Thus, every image can create history.

All of us are potential photographers; the art of photography is innate in each one of us. We need to bring out that talent and move towards potential photography to become professional photographers. It becomes a reality when we keep practising. In this article, I would like to share my experience as a mobile photographer (pocket filmmaker) on how you can capture a realistic photograph.

How to handle a smartphone camera.

1. Clean the camera lens properly so that the image is clear.

2. Focus properly, because the clarity of the image depends on your focus.

3. Keep your hands steady so that motion blur can be avoided.

4. Always use the rear or back camera as back cameras have higher pixels.

5. Never use the zoom technique to avoid the loss of pixels.

6. Turn on your HDR (High Dynamic Range) mode.

7. Composition of the image is very important.

8. Always take multiple shots so that you can choose the best one.

9. Make the shot dramatic and attractive while composing.

10. Post-process your images before sending them to digital platforms. Use editing tools to enhance images.

Know your smartphone and camera

Having a smartphone is not sufficient, we need to know how to use it smartly. Be aware of the capacity of the camera that you have. To take a good photo, adjust the camera settings of the smartphone.

Quality of the mobile camera: By default, it will be set to medium quality. We need to set the camera at its best quality by adjusting the maximum pixels of your came 24MP, 44MP, 64MP, etc.

Grid Lines: Grid lines are very important in photography. Keep the grid lines on while taking photographs. It will help you take good photos using the rule of one third.

Frame Ratio: Frame ratio is the height and width of the photograph. The frame ratio for a good quality photo is 16:9 or 4:3. Never set the full screen mode.

Auto Mode: Initially, try taking photographs with auto mode. Auto mode adjusts itself with the surroundings in terms of light. Light is very important in photography. Auto mode reduces your risk of misjudging the light.

Guidelines for a good composition

Photography depicts the creativity of a person. Keep these guidelines in mind while taking photos:

1. The first golden rule is to avoid cuts at the joints of our body. One can cut in between the joint or just above or below the joints of the subject.

2. Pay attention to the breathing space. There should be sufficient space at the headroom and the same space to the right and left of the image. Reduce the negative ground (background); keep more positive ground (foreground).

3. Follow the rule of one-third and make it dramatic.

4. Identify the leading lines in the photograph especially when the photograph is taken at a park, road or building.

5. While taking a group picture, the main subject must be at the centre of focus based on the expression or feeling.

6. There should be a depth meaning or story in the photograph. So, keep up the angles of the shot (low angle, high angle, eye level, overhead shot, undershot, etc.)

Post-processing of images

It's not just about taking the photograph, we need to give life to it as well. That happens when we post process the images. There are so many mobile applications such as LightRoom, SnapSeed, PicsArt, etc., in which we can edit or correct our mistakes. LightRoom and SnapSeed are the best apps for simple editing. In these apps, we can determine the exposure as a whole or part of the image. In editing, mostly we focus on the composition and exposure.

As I said earlier, a photo speaks more than thousands of words. When you hold your smartphone in your hand, you must capture an image that speaks a million words. Your photo should create a history, tell a story, convey a message, and bring out the feelings of the creator.