How did Shackleton rescue his crew from the Elephant Island?


               In the Elephant Island, Shackleton’s party divided into two. Twenty one men were asked to stay back on the island. Shackleton left the island with five chosen rowers, to find a way out and to come back and rescue the members stranded on the Elephant Island.



               Shackleton braved the Southern Ocean for 16 days. Soon, they made a landfall. Unfortunately, three members of the party were too sick and exhausted to continue. Shackleton and the two others climbed the icy mountains. At last they reached their destination on South Georgia Island. Shackleton succeeded in chartering a steamship to rescue his men.



               On 30th August 1916, Shackleton managed to return to the Elephant Island. And he rescued his men from the Elephant Island. 


What were the hardships faced by Shackleton and his expedition to Antarctica?


              Ernest Shackleton set out on the ‘Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition’ in 1914. The expedition faced terrible hurdles throughout the journey. Their ship ‘Endurance’ became beset in the ice of the Weddell Sea on the way. He and his crew were forced to spend the whole of the 79 days of the winter there. Finally, the crew was forced to abandon the ship, because it was about to be crushed by the ice.



               However, they had saved a large quantity of food and gear, as well as their three boats. For three months the ice floes took them further to the north. Food shortage became acute as weeks passed. They caught seals and ate their meat. So they could conserve the remaining packaged rations. The most dangerous thing was the cracking up of ice. Sometimes, huge killer whales charged up from below, and sought to attack them.



               Later, Shackleton found that instead of making good progress westwards, they had actually travelled 48 kilometres to the east, as a result of the drifting ice. However, they finally made a landfall on an uninhabited island known as the Elephant Island. 


Why was Ernest Shackleton’s voyage remarkable?


               Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton was an Irish born polar explorer who led three British expeditions to the Antarctic.



               In 1901, Shackleton joined his first expedition to the Antarctic. Unfortunately, he was sent home early due to bad health, after he, and his companions Scott and Edward Adrian Wilson set a new southern record by marching to latitude 82°S.



               In 1914, he set off on his own expedition to Antarctica. Shackleton was in a race with Roald Amundsen to reach the South Pole. The race ended in December 1911, with Roald Amundsen’s conquest.



               Shackleton later planned a voyage to the South Pole, and while returning, he wanted to pick a different route to the Ross Sea, and thus, become the first person to cross the Atlantic Ocean.



               To this end, he made preparations for what became the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition. On 1st August 1914, Shackleton departed London on the ship ‘Endurance’ for his voyage to the South Pole. There were unimaginable hurdles throughout the voyage, which Shackleton overcame with his will power, and leadership quality. 


Who was Robert Peary?


            Robert Edwin Peary, an American explorer, known for his discovery of the geographic North Pole, was one of the greatest polar explorers. Peary made several expeditions to the Arctic in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Peary was one of the first Arctic explorers to study Inuit survival techniques, which he used to his great benefit.



            After many failed attempts, Peary decided to set out on a final voyage. Peary and 23 men set off from New York City on 6th July 1908, under the command of Captain Robert Bartlett.



            They spent their winter near Cape Sheridan on Ellesmere Island. He reached the North Pole with his expedition on 6th April 1909. But, it is now suspected that he might have been 48 to 96 kilometres short of the Pole, but is still credited with the achievement.



            His success is widely disputed today, but his effort was noteworthy. Peary was promoted to the rank of Rear Admiral in the Navy Civil Engineer Corps on 6th April 1909, and retired the same day.



            Admiral Robert Peary died in the US, on 20th February 1920. 


Why is it said that Robert Scott’s voyage to the South Pole was a disaster?


 



               Robert Scott, a British Royal Navy officer and explorer, led two expeditions to the Antarctic region, at the same time as Amundsen.



               Roald Amundsen and Robert Scott took on a gripping race through danger to reach the South Pole. Amundsen reached the South Pole on 14th December, and became the first person to reach the South Pole. Robert Scott reached his destination on 17th January, only to see Roald Amundsen’s Norwegian flag waving their gloriously. However, Robert Scott’s return journey turned out to be a catastrophe, as they were too late to travel because of the deteriorating weather conditions.



               Robert Scott and his entire crew froze to death. Scott is presumed to have died on 29th March 1912. Eight months later, a search party found the bodies, which were buried under the base tent. News of Scott’s death reached the world on the 10th of February, 1913.



               After confirming the legend’s death, the British government recognized him as a national icon.



               However, the reasons behind the fate of Robert Scott and his team were identified as lack of polar knowledge and poor planning skills.