Why is Kailash Satyarthi a popular Nobel laureate?


            Kailash Satyarthi is a renowned Indian child rights activist and the winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 2014.



            Satyarthi was born on 11th January 1954, in Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh. An electrical engineering graduate, Satyarthi, started a journal called ‘The Struggle Shall Continue’ in 1980 in order to create awareness about the problem of child labour.



            Satyarthi is the founder of the Bachpan Bachao Andolan, an organization dedicated towards the eradication of child labour and rehabilitation of the rescued former child workers. The organisation acts to protect the rights of more than 83,000 children from 144 countries. The success of this organisation led to the creation of the South Asian Coalition on Child Servitude (SACCS) in 1989. SACCS has till date liberated several thousands of child labourers working in different industries.



            His work is recognized through various national and international honours and awards including the Nobel Peace Prize of 2014, which he shared with Malala Yousafzai of Pakistan.














Who is Amartya Sen?


            Amartya Kumar Sen is the 1998 Nobel prize-winner in economics. He is a well-known economic theorist whose works link ethical questions with economic issues.



            Sen was born in Santiniketan, West Bengal. In 1956, at the age of 23, he was appointed as the Professor and head of the Economics Department at the Jadavpur University, Calcutta.



            After two years, he went to Cambridge University to pursue his Ph.D In 1959; he submitted his Ph.D thesis titled ‘the choice of techniques’, after which he was a visiting Professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.



            From 1961 to 1972, he was a Professor at the Delhi School of Economics, after which he was a Professor of Economics at the London School of Economics. Since 1972, had taught and worked in the United Kingdom and the United States.



            Sen has made contributions to welfare economics, social choice theory, economic and social justice and economic theories of famines.



            In 1999, he was awarded the Bharat Ratna, which is the highest civilian award in India.












What made Mother Teresa prominent among the Nobel laureates of India?


            Mother Teresa was the founder of the Missionaries of Charity, dedicated to helping the poor. Considered one of the 20th Century’s greatest humanitarians, she was canonized as Saint Teresa of Calcutta in 2016.



            Mother Teresa was born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu in Skopje, Macedonia, on 26th August 1910. But she later moved to India, where she lived for most of her life.



            The Missionaries of Charity came into being on 7th October 1950, in Calcutta, with the Vatican decree recognizing the diocesan congregation. Mother Teresa proceeded with the aim to care for the hungry, the naked, the homeless, the crippled, the blind, the lepers, and all those people who feel unwanted, unloved, uncared. It had over 4,500 sisters, and became active in 133 countries by 2012.



            She received the Padma Shree in 1962 and the Bharat Ratna in 1980. She was awarded the Ramon Magsaysay Award for Peace and International Understanding in 1962.



            Mother Teresa accepted the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979.










What were the contributions of C. V. Raman?


            Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman was an Indian physicist, who became the first Indian to win the Nobel Prize in Physics.



            C.V. Raman was born in the former Madras Province in British India, presently the state of Tamil Nadu.



            He carried out ground-breaking work in the field of light scattering, which earned him the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics. Raman led experiments at the Indian Association for Cultivation of Science with collaborators, including K. S. Krishnan, on the scattering of light. He discovered that, when light traverses a transparent material, some of the deflected light changes in wavelength. This phenomenon is now called Raman scattering and is the result of the Raman Effect.



            Raman was president of the 16th session of the Indian Science Congress in 1929. He was conferred a knighthood, and medals and honorary doctorates by various universities.



            In 1954, India honoured him with its highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna. Raman died in 1970, in Bangalore, at the age of 82.








Who was the first Nobel laureate from India?


 



 



            Rabindranath Tagore, a renowned Indian poet, who became the first Asian poet to be awarded the 1913 Nobel Prize for Literature, for his extraordinary work ‘Gitanjali’. He also became the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.



            Tagore was born on 7th May 1861, in Calcutta, India. He wrote his first poem at the age of six, and as a young boy, studied the classical poetry of Kalidasa.



            After a brief stay in England to attempt to study law, he returned to India, and instead, pursued a career as a writer, playwright, songwriter, poet, philosopher and educator.



            He authored almost 50 odd volumes of poetry. Tagore’s poetic songs were viewed as spiritual and mercurial. Initially, Tagore wrote his poems in his native language Bengali. Later, his works were translated into foreign languages. Gradually, he became well known in the West. In fact he toured many countries, and delivered many lectures on international platforms.



            In 1950, his song ‘Jana Gana Mana’ was adopted as India’s national anthem.