What is the career in glaciology?

Imagine working in one of the coldest and most remote, but most breathtakingly beautiful, areas of the world. Armed with a crash helmet and climbing harness, you are slowly lowered into one of the ice crevasses of a surging glacier. Your mission: to examine the effect of climate change on the icy mass.

Sounds interesting, does it not? With glaciers around the world disappearing at an alarming rate and causing sea levels to rise, the hitherto obscure field of glaciology has now become extremely important. Glaciologists assess the impact of climate change, look for alternatives to sustain Earth's depleting resources, forecast avalanches and save the world, one glacier at a time.

What is glaciology?

Glaciology is a branch of environmental science that deals with snow and ice. More specifically, glaciologists study glaciers. They closely monitor the formation, movement of different kinds of glaciers such as alpine and arctic glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets and ice shelves.

A large part of the research conducted by glaciologists analyses how glaciers and ice caps move and change in response to climate change and how these changes, in turn, influence climate and the surrounding environment.

Required Skills

  • Passion for mountains

  • Adventurous spirit

  • Research and analytical skills

  • Scientific temperament

  • Working knowledge of snow equipment

  • Willingness to do field as well as lab studies

  • Physical fitness to work in high altitudes for prolonged durations


  • Study of glaciers

  • Reconstructing past climates

  • Hydrology: monitoring the melting of glaciers

  • Avalanche study

What to study:

After graduating from the Science stream with Physics, Chemistry Biology or Geology you can specialise in glaciology and further work as research fellows at the following institutes:

NOTE: A PhD will help you excel in this field.


  • National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research, Goa

  • Jawaharlal Nehru University's School of Environmental Sciences/School of Geography, New Delhi

  • Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru

  • Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai

  • Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment Research Centre, Chandigarh and Manali

  • Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun offers glaciology training

What are the job prospects?

Glaciology can be a never- ending adventure as you get to work in a variety of locations such the office, lab and even in some of the most extreme places in the world such as Antartica, Greenland or the Himalayan peaks, where few dare to venture.

 Many government institutes conduct research on glaciers. You can join them as a research fellow or a scientist after completing your postgraduation.

Of late, plenty of opportunities have opened up in the private sector too. You can work with NGOs taking on projects on climate change, building avalanche- resistant structures, disaster management or framing environmental policies.

Did you know?

  • In December 2020, the world's biggest iceberg, the size of a small city, broke in two in Antarctica and is on a collision course with South Georgia Island, a wildlife refuge in South Atlantic Ocean.

  • In February 2020, a massive iceberg broke off Antarctica's Pine Island Glacier.


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What is the career in the field of cognitive science?

What is cognitive science?

Cognitive science is the study of the mind- its inner workings and complexities. Through different disciplines (including psychology, neuroscience and philosophy) it tries to offer multi-faceted explanations of individual and social behaviour.

How it works?

Cognitive scientists try to understand cognitive processes such as memory, language, human reasoning, creativity. They look at how these processes affect our ability to experience the world around us

This study can be applied towards understanding and developing education tools, better virtual user interfaces, and even artificial intelligence.

What are the job prospects?

The interdisciplinary nature of cognitive science provides students with the opportunity to pursue careers ranging from science to technology to law. Today, cognitive science is playing a crucial role in developing artificial intelligence and machine-learning, Cognitive scientists apply their knowledge of the human mind to develop machines that can mirror human functions.

Some of the other avenues open to students of cognitive science are software development user experience / user interface design game design, data science and data analysis, communications and mobile systems, medical technology and analysis.

Students can also work in other fields that value good writing and analytic thought along with technical and research skills. These include neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation law, technical writing, science communication and public engagement, and marketing and consumer behaviour.

What to study

Many universities in India and abroad offer undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate courses in Cognitive Science.


  • Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur: Minor in Cognitive Science; Master of Science (M.S.) in Cognitive Science

  • Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences, University of Allahabad: Master of Science in Cognitive Science

  • Centre for Neuroscience, Indian Institute of Sciences, Bengaluru: Postgraduate courses in Cognitive Science

  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the U.S.: Undergraduate and postgraduate programmes in Brain and Cognitive Science

  • Yale University, the U.S.: Undergraduate programme in Cognitive Science

  • University of Pennsylvania, the U.S.: Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) and Master of Arts (M.A.) in Cognitive Neuroscience; Computation and Cognition; and Language and Mind.


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What are the opportunities in comic book industry?

The term comic book often brings to mind colourful images of gallant superheroes swooping in to save the day from the evil schemes of ghostly villians. But comic books can be more than just entertaining, they can offer a lucrative career path.

Comics are no longer limited to books and newspaper columns alone. Thanks to the popularity of graphic novels, manga and films-based on comic books, the industry is expanding and opening up myriad career options.

Who is a comic book artist?

A comic book artist illustrates books by drawing characters and scenes. Some artists also write stories and dialogue.

How it works

  • Storyboard artists: Artists with cinematography and editing knowledge are hired by production houses to draw up storyboards for films. A storyboard is illustrations displayed in a sequence for visualising a film.

  • Animated films: Professionals with a background in comics industry are roped in by animation studios to work on their projects and films.

  • Graphic novels: Many Indian writers have ventured into graphic novels. More and more original characters - especially those based on characters from Indian mythology - are emerging.

  • Commercial projects: Illustrating and creating mascots for sports teams. Ad agencies, restaurants and retail chains also hire comic book artists to reach out to customers using humour.

Required skills

One of the most important skills required in this profession is a vivid imagination. Comic book artists have to actively create new characters and worlds. Drawing skills are also equally essential. Writing for comic books requires additional skills. It requires you to understand the comic language, where pictures speak louder than words. So the writer must be a visual communicator.

What to study

Anyone with drawing skills and an imagination can become a comic book artist. Unlike other professions, a multifaceted background helps in this line. While a formal education is not always necessary for a career in this field, enrolling in an art school usually helps artists strengthen their skills. It can help them leam the basics and acquire a variety of different skills to add to their portfolio. You can major in animation, sequential art or illustration.

Where to study:

  • Venkateshwara Open University: Master of Arts (M.A.) in Drawing and Painting

  • College of Art, New Delhi: Diploma in Fine Arts

  • Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur: Bachelor of Fine Arts (Drawing and Painting).

  • National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad: Bachelor of Design (B.Des.) and Master of Design (M. Des.)


  • Camberwell College of Arts, University of Arts, London: Short courses in Introduction to Illustration Online

  • Brighton University, the U.K.: Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) (Hons.) Illustration.


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What is the career in the field of meteorology?

Real-time and accurate information on weather are critical factors in predicting and responding to extreme weather events such as cyclones and floods. With such events increasing, the demand for personnel in the field of meteorology is increasing.

How it works

By analysing international climatic trends, meteorologists can calculate the threat of global warming and even predict catastrophic dust storms and cyclones such as the cyclone Nivar that recently hit Tamil Nadu.

As a meteorologist you can join the Met Office, the government body for weather forecasting and research. You can also work with environmental agencies for research on global warming and climate change.

Often meteorologists team up with atmospheric chemists and other scientists in the Pollution Control Board to track pollution levels that affect the air quality of cities.

You can also work as a weather forecaster for radio and television.

Required skills

An in-depth knowledge of Mathematics and Physics is key, coupled with a keen interest in environmental issues. Since a meteorologist's work involves observing and interpreting large amounts of data, communication skills are important too.

You also need to have the ability to handle extreme pressure, especially during adverse conditions such as cyclones or thunderstorms.

Excellent computer skills are a must as meteorology depends on advanced technology and software. Dedication and willingness to put in long hours is equally essential.

What to study

Those aspiring to work as scientific assistants with the Indian Meteorological Department need to appear for the staff selection commission exam. You need to be a Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) with Physics and Maths or a Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.) or Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) with Computer Science or Electronics to qualify. For a position as a meteorologist, you need to further pursue a Masters and crack the Union Public Service Commission exam. Meteorologists have more responsibilities than scientific assistants. Experienced meteorologists are in demand in the private sector as well.

Where to study

  • Andhra University, Vishakhapatnam: M.Sc in Meteorology.

  • Cochin University of Science and Technology: M.Sc in Environmental Technology.

  • Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune:  Research in Science of Climate Change; Advanced Training in Earth System Sciences and Climate.


  • University of Birmingham, the U.K.: M.Sc Applied Meteorology and Climatology: B.Sc Environmental Science,

  • University of Exeter, the U.K.: M.Sc Mathematics (Climate Science).

  • University College, London: M.Sc Climate Change.


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I want to forget her

I love my girlfriend even though we have broken up. I just can't live without her. Since I came to know that she doesn't love me anymore, I want to forget her but I am unable to do so. This is affecting my studies. What should I do in order to forget her and lead a successful life?

Looks like you feel much pain at breaking up with your girlfriend. It must hurt that she doesn't love you anymore.

Firstly, be aware of and acknowledge your feelings -- the hurt, sadness, and pain because you have broken up. Take time for this, for it will help you to feel calmer and more peaceful.

Imagine that you are in charge of lighting the stage of your life. What you're doing at present is placing your ex girlfriend at centre-stage and putting a spotlight on her. This blinds you and leaves the rest of the stage - all the other people and things present in your life - in darkness. Remember, the switch of your mind's spotlight is in your hands. Move the spotlight onto other people and things new friends, your studies, hobbies. Acknowledge and be grateful for whatever you have, and which brings you joy. This way, the entire stage of your life will light up!

You say you 'just can't live without her', know that you are already living without her and have asked for advice on how to 'forget her! This shows that you have taken the first step to moving on!


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I am not sure if she likes me

I am a student of Class 9. I like one of my classmates, but I’m not sure if she likes me. I want to concentrate on my studies and exams, but whenever I take my books in my hands I start thinking of her. My parents have great expectations of me. I want to fulfill their dreams which are my goal in life. What should I do?

Thinking about a classmate you like and not knowing if she likes you is distracting you from your studies.

Since this girl is your classmate, make friends with her, if you haven’t already. Get to know her as a person. If you are already friends, enjoy the friendship. If she thinks of you as a special friend, it will be quite obvious, and if she doesn’t, you will also know soon enough.

As for your future, do ensure that the dreams you are trying to fulfil are also what you want, not just those that your parents want for you. If you are only working to fulfill their dreams, you will not put in a wholehearted effort. Take up your books because you want to learn.

To study, set a 25-minute timer and commit to focusing. When you get distracted, say I will think about that later' and get back to studies. After 25-minutes, take a 5 to 10-minute break and allow yourself to think about or do whatever you like. Then back to another 25-minute session. With a little determination, you can achieve your goals. Good luck!


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Our friend’s girlfriend tries to control him

We have a group of close friends, all boys. One of our friend's girlfriend tries to manipulate and control him. She has brought about a lot of changes in his behaviour. He often disrespects or causes hurt to our sentiments. The girl often tries to defame us in our friend's view. Day by day our friend is getting away from us.

You're hurt and angry with your friend's behaviour and fear losing him. Yet, the reality is that other halves' will enter all your lives sometime. Whether they become the "better' or 'bitter' half is up to you.

So, come to the same side as your friend: Tell him you are happy that he has someone special in his life; that you know that he is torn between friends and her. Express your hurt when he disrespects you. Share that as a group your goal is to balance your personal lives and still keep the bond you share as a group. Discuss three scenarios: how/when you will a) spend time alone as a group; b) spend time away from the group (alone with a girlfriend) and c) include girlfriends in group activities. The end goal: your friendship remains intact.

Finally, get to know his girlfriend. Acknowledge her importance in his life. Reassure her that while he is free to spend time with her, it would be nice if he spent some time with his friends too, and that you all will include her in the group sometimes.

To balance group bonds with personal ones, it is necessary to be accepting and have open communication. Only then can there be harmony.


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I suffer from nightmares related to my study

I am in Class XI and a JEE aspirant. Due to the pandemic our Class X exam results were delayed and hence the upcoming session, which resulted in a loss of time for my JEE exam preparation. I am left with just a year for the preparation. I hate online classes as I learn 0% from it. I was one of the toppers in Class X but now I don't think I can make it. Recently our tests and exams were taken online and I know I did not perform well. My parents bought me a specialized online coaching package, but I am not performing well even then. I have changed my school because of my father's job and I hate the place in which we live now. My father has so many visitors that the whole day is wasted in serving outsiders. I get no time for studying as my mom tells me to do household chores. I think because I am a girl they treat me like that. I wish I was a boy because then I would never have to do all this. I even suffer from nightmares related to my study. I don't think I can crack JEE if the situation remains the same. I want to go back to my school and to the place I lived in before. I often end up in tears when I think about it.

Sounds like you just hate everything that is happening to you. You feel powerless, out of control and a failure, and you're ready to give up. Yet, when you are rock bottom, you can only go up.

You can choose to look backwards at all the things that have not worked, label them as terrible, play a victim, pity yourself and spiral into despair; OR you can look forward to your future, label your challenges as opportunities to grow, be a 'growth-mindset' person, and make things happen. The truly successful people in the world went through tremendous tough times before emerging winners.

If you want to win over yourself and your mind:

a) Accept the new place and school. A growth-mindset person can grow where planted. What if you were stuck in an IIT and this situation arose?

b) Set boundaries: If your priority is studies, set aside time slots to study and tell everyone not to disturb you then. Be firm. Set aside a different time to help your parents.

c) Inspire yourself: Find ways to encourage yourself towards your JEE goal and success. Examples: A vision board on the wall. An image of yourself with a medal saying ‘JEE'. A voice recording to play when you're discouraged.

d) Sort your study difficulties: Your feelings of resentment prevent you from focusing. Rewire. Online learning can be recorded, played back a million times, is in small chunks and there are a thousand references for a topic. If you're missing company: Phone a friend. Teach another. Video call an expert (teacher). Get a study buddy or group. People are often happy to help.

Even one second ago is the past. Work in the present to create your future.


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How about taking up food photography as a career?

Eating with your eyes

The food industry has mastered the art of making food appear alluring and irresistible. A food stylist's job is to make food look great especially for the camera and have people fall in love with it even before they try it. A growing demand for gourmet food has turned food styling into a lucrative career option.

How it works

Food stylists are hired by publications, television shows, fine-dining restaurants and advertising firms to present food in an attractive manner. For a print or a television advertisement, food stylists collaborate closely with art directors and photographers to achieve a look that's right.

What to study

Food styling is part of most hotel management courses. The Government of India runs around 23 Institutes of Hotel Management and Catering Technology across India. Admissions are based on a joint entrance test conducted after Class XII.


  • Institute of Hotel Management Kolkata: B.Sc in Hospitality and Hotel Administration Masters of Science (M.Sc) in Hospitality Administration

  • Kohinoor IMI School of Hospitality Management Khandala and Kohinoor College of Tourism and Hotel Management Studies, Mumbai: Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) in Hospitality Studies and Catering Services. Abroad:

  • Ecole Hoteliere de Lausanne, Switzerland: M.Sc in Hotel Management

  • Swiss Federal Institute of Food Technology: M.Sc in Food Science.

What are the job prospects?

Usually, trained chefs become food stylists. They cook the food and plate it up in an aesethically pleasing manner. Gaining experience in kitchens, catering or doing a cookery course are essential for this job.

You can also be a food photographer. Professional photographers who do not have culinary skills hire chefs to prepare the food and then photograph it. Using lights and different camera angles, they take pictures to be published or sold. They often touch up the food with artificial elements to increase its appeal. To become a food photographer, you need to possess food styling skills too.


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What is the career in Geoinformatics?

Maps are no longer just pieces of paper connecting one place to another. Today, they help us drive to unfamiliar places, have food delivered to our doorstep and have a cab pick us up within minutes. This is all thanks to the geoinformatics (GIS) and remote sensing technology, which is used in navigation and several apps. As the technology advances, it has opened up a plethora of career avenues.

What is GIS?

Geoinformatics is a specialised field necessitating expert knowledge. A GIS professional interprets and understands geographical data and presents it in a way people can access easily. They build and maintain GIS databases, use the technology to analyse spatial and non spatial information. GIS professionals hold a wide variety of job titles, including GIS Analyst, GIS Technician, and Cartographer.

What is the scope?

GIS professionals can work in different organisations. In the government sector, job prospects include government space agencies, research institutes, national informatics centre, agricultural research institute, among others. There are growing opportunities in the private sector as well with companies discovering the benefits of geoinformatics.

Environmental agencies, survey and mapping organisations, mineral exploration, utility companies, emergency services, public health and epidemiology, international organisations, crime mapping, transportation and infrastructure, tourism industry, market analysis and e-commerce are some of the other avenues available in this field.

Job profiles range from scientist project co-ordinator, project scientist and technical assistant to research scholar, research associate, GIS expert and GIS environment analyst in private sector.

What to study

Students specialising in Geography, Geology: Agriculture, Engineering,. Information Technology or Computer Science can gain admission to Master of Science (M.Sc.). Master of Technology (M.Tech.) courses in Geoinformatics and Remote Sensing. There is also the option to follow it up with Ph.D. programmes


  • Indian Institute of Remote Sensing and Sensing: Dehradun: M.Tech. (RS & GIS) conducted in collaboration with Andhra University, Visakhapatnam: M.Sc in Geoinformatics conducted in collaboration with the Faculty of Geo information Science & Earth Observation of the University of Twente, the Netherlands

  • Birla Institute of Technology: Ranchi, Extension centres - Kolkata, Jaipur. MSc. in Geoinformatics

  • National Remote Sensing Agency: Hyderabad: Training courses in in geo spatial technology

  • ISRO, Bengalund Training in the field of Remote Sensing: Geo-informatics and GPS Technology for Natural Resources and Disaster Management for Master of Engineering (M.E), M.Sc. M. Tech, Master of Computer Applications students

  • Symbiosis Institute of Geoinformatics, Pune: M.Sc. in Geoinformatics.


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