I would like to pursue B.A. degree in English

I have just finished my Std. XII board exams. I would like to pursue B.A. degree in English. Is literature or functional English better?

A course in English literature is designed for academic study of English as well as language skills at the workplace. It trains students to pursue higher studies in English literature and language.

The main focus of Functional English is on how English is used in real-life situations. Its curriculum is designed for perfection in reading, writing, listening and speaking. The emphasis is on building vocabulary and enhancing reading abilities. The course includes intensive drilling in listening and producing English sounds, English stress pattern, intonation.

Both courses are offered at the undergraduate level. The duration of the course is three years. Go for B.A. in Literature if you want to go for higher studies in English.

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In the “Harry Potter” series, what are the Elder Wand, the Resurrection Stone and the Invisibility Cloak collectively known as?

The title of the book refers to three mythical objects featured in the story, collectively known as the "Deathly Hallows"—an unbeatable wand (the Elder Wand), a stone to bring the dead to life (the Resurrection Stone), and a cloak of invisibility. 

Harry Potter possessed all three Hallows andaccepted his own death. First, he inherited the Cloak ofInvisibility from his father, James. Then, he inherited theResurrection Stone from Dumbledore, which was inside a snitch.Finally, he won the Elder Wand from Draco Malfoy during the escapefrom Malfoy Manor.

The title of the book refers to three mythical objectsfeatured in the story, collectively known as the "DeathlyHallows"—an unbeatable wand, a stone to bring the dead tolife, and a cloak of invisibility. Shortly before releasing thetitle, J. K. Rowling announced that she had considered three titlesfor the book.

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Which Black Panther finds an abandoned human child and teaches him the laws of the jungle?

Bagheera is a fictional character in Rudyard Kipling's Mowgli stories in The Jungle Book (coll. 1894) and The Second Jungle Book (coll. 1895). He is a black panther (melanistic Indian leopard) who serves as friend, protector and mentor to the "man-cub" Mowgli. The word bagheera is Hindustani for panther or leopard, although the root word bagh means tiger.

Bagheera is the wise and respectable black panther who lives in the Seoni jungle in India. His life changes when he discovers the infant man-cub, Mowgli, in a wrecked canoe and dedicates himself to ensure the safety of the young boy by putting him in the care of the wolves and watch over him until he is ready to rejoin humanity.

The Jungle Book takes a lot of creative liberties that deviate from the source material. However, Bagheera deviates the least from Kipling's works out of all the characters in the film. Like in the books, Bagheera is Mowgli's elegant, no-nonsense mentor but does not spoil Mowgli occasionally, nor is he as effeminate as his book counterpart.

Bagheera is a slender, black panther (Indian melanistic leopard). He has a gray muzzle, a pink nose, and black eyebrows. He has yellow eyes with black pupils, and a pair of numerous whiskers.

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What are forms of literature?


Any form of creative writing is called literature. It includes fiction, such as novels, poems, and plays, and non-fiction, including reference books, diaries, letters, and autobiographies. In all these literary forms, writers use their imagination to shape their material. They set out to convey information, ideas, or feelings in a clear and informed way that will interest and engage the reader.


Authors who write fiction create events, settings, and characters from their imaginations. Although writers may base their stories on true events, there are always some elements that are made up. Works of fiction can include short stories, novels (long stories containing at least 60,000 words), poems, and plays.

Science fiction

Authors may use scientific fact and modern technology to explore and imagine an alternative world, set now or in the future.


Writing that is based on fact is called non-fiction. Authors need to thoroughly research and understand their subject so they can bring to life actual events – historical, political, and personal. Non-fiction titles also include biographies (accounts of people’s lives) and autobiographies (authors’ accounts of their own lives).

Anne Frank wrote about her experiences as a Jewish girl hiding from the Nazis in World War II.


Stories written for an audience fall into the category of drama, which may be performed in a theatre or in the movies, or on the radio or television. The audience expects something to happen, so writers use language to create characters and situations that will hold their interest.

English playwright William Shakespeare is considered the world’s most successful dramatist.


Today, young readers enjoy a huge range of literature, both fiction and non-fiction. Writing for children is a specialized area, and authors often work alongside illustrators to get the story across effectively. In general, children’s books follow the adventures of a main character who is a similar age to the reader. The storyline may also introduce the reader to challenges in their own lives, such as bullying or bereavement.


Hugely popular books that sell to vast numbers of readers are referred to as bestsellers. The biggest seller of all time is the Bible, with approximately 6 billion copies sold. Former Chinese leader Mao Zedong’s Quotations from Chairman Mao sold some 1 billion copies. The holy book of Islam, the Qur’an, is close behind with 800 million copies. One of the most important works of Western literature, the Spanish novel Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, has to date sold about 500 million copies.

• More than 2 billion copies of Agatha Christie’s crime novels have been sold worldwide.

• The bestselling playright is William Shakespeare, with an estimated 4 billion copies sold.

• The seven books in J K Rowling’s Harry Potter series have sold more than 500 million copies.

• The Lord of the Rings by JRR Tolkein has sold more than 150 million copies.

• The Bible has been translated into more than 2,000 languages.


These magical stories usually feature fantastic characters facing near impossible challenges, set in an unspecific time in the past. The original tales, found in every culture, have no known authors. They were first intended for a general audience, but now folk tales are often thought of as children’s books. They are usually beautifully illustrated with images of the people and places.


In contrast to prose, poetry is often written in lines rather than paragraphs. Poets choose words that will best express an image, an idea, or a feeling. Some poetry rhymes, but not all. An ancient form of poem is the Japanese haiku, which requires the poet to use words made up from 17 syllables (single units of speech) to convey an idea or image.

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Why did Jean Paul Sartre and Boris Pasternak refuse the Nobel Prize?

Sartre postulated that past awarded winners did not represent equally all ideologies and nations, and was concerned that his work would be unjustly and undesirably misinterpreted by rightist circles who would criticize “certain past errors.”  Sartre, himself, disagreed with particular laureates of past awards, including, interestingly enough, Boris Pasternak who also refused the Nobel Prize in literature in 1957, though for different reasons.  

But the refusal was not a theatrical or “impulsive gesture,” Sartre wrote in a statement to the Swedish press, which was later published in Le Monde. It was consistent with his longstanding principles. “I have always declined official honors,” he said, and referred to his rejection of the Legion of Honor in 1945 for similar reasons. 

There was another reason as well, an “objective” one, Sartre wrote. In serving the cause of socialism, he hoped to bring about “the peaceful coexistence of the two cultures, that of the East and the West.” (He refers not only to Asia as “the East,” but also to “the Eastern bloc.”)

Boris Pasternak, the Russian author, said to-day that he had "voluntarily" changed his mind about accepting the Nobel Prize and had done so without having consulted even his friends. He told me at his villa ten miles outside Moscow that he had thought over the reaction to the award and decided fully on his own to renounce it.

This morning he wrote in pencil a brief telegram of explanation to the Swedish Academy, carried it himself to the local post office, and so informed the world. The telegram read:

"Considering the meaning this award has been given in the society to which I belong, I must reject this undeserved prize which has been presented to me. Please do not receive my voluntary rejection with displeasure. - Pasternak."


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