What is the career in trekking?

What is mountain climbing?

Mountain climbing is an adventure sport pursued across the world. A trekking or mountain guide helps Amateurs scale the mountains. Be it the world's highest mountain Mount Everest or the second highest Karakoram range, many of the mountaineers couldn't have made it without the help of trekking guides.

How it works:

Trekking guides are trained in climbing and surving in high altitudes. They are responsible for taking clients to the top of the mountains and bringing them back safely.

Often there might be more than one trekking guide in an expedition depending on the difficulty level.

What it involves

Mountaineering can be tough and intense, and one of the biggest challenges of the job is braving harsh climates and terrain. Not only do you need to be prepared for all emergencies, including avalanches, which are fairly common. but you should be willing to put others' needs in front of your own. As a guide your job is to ensure your client's safety, which can be a huge responsibility. Mountain climbing and guiding may not be financially rewarding. The profession has high demand in particular seasons. In India, usually, winters and early summers are busy because it is a good weather for trekking. Except for a few parts, the rainy season is a dry spell.

Did you know?

  • Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay, were the first to reach the summit of Mount Everest - the world's highest mountain - on May 29, 1953.

  • Bachendri Pal became the first Indian woman to reach the summit of Mount Everest in 1984.

  • Arunima Sinha, an amputee mountaineer, scaled Mount Everest on May 21, 2013 with a prosthetic leg.

  • In 2014, Pooma Malvath made history as the youngest person ever to scale Mount Everest at 13.

What to study:

To get started in this career, you need to get certified as a mountaineer from a government-recognised institute


  • Nehru Institute of Mountaineering, Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand Advance Mountaineering Course (AMC) and Method of Instruction (MOI).

  • Jawahar Institute of Mountaineering and Winter Sports. Pahalgam, Jammu and Kashmir AMC and Adventure Courses.

  • National Institute of Mountaineering and Allied Sports, Dirang. Arunachal Pradesh: Courses in mountaineering, mountain terrain biking, and paragliding.

  • Himalayan Mountaineering Institute, Darjeeling. West Bengal: AMC MOI, Search and Rescue, and Rock climbing.

  • Atal Bihari Vajpayee Institute of Mountaineering and Allied Sports, Manali, Himachal Pradesh: Basic Mountaineering (26 days) and AMC (28 days)


  • Australian School of Mountaineering, Katoomba: Training courses in mountaineering, abseiling, canyoning and rock climbing

  • Alpine Ascents International, Seattle, Washington, the U.S.: Beginner, Intermediate and International Mountaineering courses.

  • International School of Mountaineering, the U.K: Courses in alpine mountaineering and ice climbing.


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What is TRP?

Very often we hear people talking about the TRP of a TV channel or programme increasing. What does it mean? How is TRP estimated?

TRP is a metric used to measure the reach of the television. Standing for Television Rating Point, TRP tells us which programme or channel is viewed the most. TRP indicates how popular a show or channel is. The higher the TRP, the wider the viewership. In other words, TRPs indicate how many people watched which programmes or channels for how long during a particular period.

How does TRP help?

TRP helps advertisers know the pulse of the audience. Advertisements being a costly investment, advertisers need to ensure maximum reach of their ads for the benefit of their product. According to the TRP of a programme or channel, they decide where to display their ads. Higher TRP means bigger audience and more money from advertisers.

How is it measured?

The Broadcast Audience Research Council (BARC) India, a joint industry body represented by advertisers, ad agencies and broadcasters, carries out television ratings in India. It has installed a device called BAR-O-meter in over 40,000 households across the country to measure viewership of hundreds of channels. The device tracks the shows being watched and provides data on viewership patterns across age and socio-economic groups. The panel households are assumed to be representative of the country’s population and this sampling helps estimate the viewing patterns of crores of viewers.

Every Thursday, BARC releases data comparing the viewership of varied programmes and channels. However, it has announced a three-month suspension of ratings of news channels following the latest TRP manipulation scam.


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What is the career in Pharmacy?

Pharmacy, also known as Pharmacology, is the study of preparing, mixing, dispensing or compounding drugs, pills, tablets, ointments or injections. It is an age-old profession that has been part of all ancient civilisations. Today, this field has grown by leaps and bounds, moving on from traditional roles and providing critical inputs to various fields - clinical services, reviewing medications for safety and efficacy, providing drug information, manufacturing, product development, quality assurance, regulatory affairs, teaching etc.


What are the career prospects?

The field of pharmacy offers a plethora of career opportunities from manufacturing pharmaceutical products and developing the techniques of production to executing quality control of the medicines, Pharmacists are hired by pharmaceutical industries, government departments, colleges and universities, hospitals, investigative agencies and research institutes. They can also find jobs in food and cosmetic industries.

Required skills

  • Proficiency in R and D: The field of pharmacy involves researching on the development and the progress of manufacturing the drugs. You must be aware of the developments and advancements in the field.

  • Technical knowledge: You must know how to operate computers and other electronic gadgets used in medicine production

  • Logic and analysis: Thinking and good observation skills are important

  • Communication skills: Good communication skills are needed to convey safety guidelines and general information about the product to the users.

  • Patience Research work requires patience as it can take several years to complete.

Where you can study

  • University of Delhi: Bachelors in Pharmacy (B.Pharm). Diploma in Pharmacy (D.Pharma), Master of Science in Pharmacy (M.Sc. Pharmacy)

  • University of Madras: M.Sc. (Pharmacy): M.D. (Pharmacology): and M.Sc (Pharmacology)

  • Uttarakhand Technical University: B.Pharm; M.Pharm. (Quality Assurance); and M.SC (Pharmacy)

  • Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER),Chandigarh: M.D. (Pharmacology) and M.SC (Pharmacy)

  • Kendriya Vishwavidyalaya, Tamil Nadu: M.Sc (Pharmacy) and D.Pharm


  • Bouve College of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, the U.S.: Master of Science (M.S.) in Pharmaceutical Sciences and M.S. in Pharmacology

  • University of Southern California, the U.S.: M.S. in Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy

  • Duquesne University, the U.S.: M.S. in Pharmacy Administration.


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My parents want me to opt for IIT

I am good in Maths, Chemistry and Physics. My parents want me to opt for IIT, but I am thinking about IIM which has been my dream since I was younger. What should I do?

Both IIM (Indian Institutes of Management) and IIT (Indian Institutes of Technology) are very prestigious and world famous group of institutions. IIMs offer PG diploma in management, admission for which is through a competitive examination Graduates from any field are eligible to appear for the examination. IITs are famous for offering B.Tech. (Bachelors in Technology), besides offering many other courses including MBAs.

The good news is that you may join both. First go for B.Tech. in IITs. Eligibility is 10+2 with Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics. After completing B.Tech., you may go for post-graduate level management qualification from IIMs. But be prepared for the hard work, as entering into these institutes requires lot of effort, preparation and thorough knowledge.


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My aim is to become an eye specialist

My aim is to become an eye specialist. What qualities do I need to develop and which courses should I take up after Std X to pursue a career as an eye specialist?

To become an eye specialist, first you need to have a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) degree. After completing MBBS, go for 2 years PG diploma or 3 years M.D. (Doctor of Medicine) in Ophthalmology or M.S. (Master of Surgery).

The duration of MBBS is 52 of which the last one year is a period years of rotary internship. Four and half years are divided into three parts. The first one and half years are spent on pre-clinical subjects, i.e., anatomy, biochemistry and physiology. The next one and a half years are spent on studies of pharmacology, forensic medicine, pathology, bacteriology, microbiology, etc. After passing the pre-clinical subjects, the next one and half years are devoted to clinical work in hospital ward and departments, concurrently with training in the para medical subjects, i.e., surgery, medicine and gynaecology. One year of internship is devoted to complete practical training in above subjects.

There are medical colleges in every state while some are controlled by central or state governments, others are administered by private communities. Admissions are either through competitive entrance exams or on merit, i.e., marks obtained in the qualifying exam.

Some of the qualities required are: strong communication skills, high degree of motivation and self-discipline, strong desire to help the sick and injured, emotional stability and the capacity to make decisions in an emergency.


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I want to enter into the field of Nuclear Physics

I am a Class 12 (Science) student. After my 12th I want to enter into the field of Nuclear Physics. Which are the colleges that offer this field of study? Does this field carries some scope for research in our country? How do I shape my career after my Class 12 examinations?

A Nuclear Physics deals with study of the structure of matter at the atomic level. The subject is mainly applied in nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons technology. A few other applications of the subject are nuclear medicine, ion implantation in material engineering, magnetic resonance imaging, and radiocarbon dating in geology and archaeology.

To enter into this field, you should have a good grounding in Physics. Start with an UG degree in Physics and go for PG with specialization in Nuclear Physics. You may also go for an Integrated M.Sc.-Ph.D, degree after B.Sc (Hons). Some of the best institutes offering such courses are: Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai; IIT Mumbai, Delhi Kanpur, Kharagpur, Guwahati, Madras and Roorkee: The Institute of Mathematical Sciences (IMSc), Chennai; Harish Chandra Research Institute (HRT), Allahabad; Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research (IISER) at Pune, Mohali, Kolkata, Trivandrum and Bhopal, and also at the National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER) at Bhubaneswar.


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I want to become a gynaecologist

I'm currently studying in Class 10. I am very interested in Biology and its branches and I want to become a gynaecologist. What should I opt for in the future?

In order to become a gynaecologist, you should first go for MBBS, for which eligibility is 10+2 with Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Then go for 2 years PG diploma or 3 years M.D. (Doctor of Medicine) in Gynaecology or M.S. (Master of Surgery).


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I want to be a psychologist

I am a student of Class 11 with the subjects PCM. I want to be a psychologist but had never studied it as a subject before. What should I do after Std 12 so as to pursue Psychology as a career? I also want to try for the Civil Services. What are the courses (so as to become eligible to give the Civil Services exams, too), job opportunities and scope in this field? Also is there any exam I need to do so as to work in foreign countries?

You can still study Psychology during graduation, even if you do not have Psychology as a subject in 10+2. But before taking this decision, you should carefully think about your seriousness about the subject and available options. Borrow books on Psychology from your friends and read to have an idea about the subject.

During graduation, the studies will be of a higher level. Psychology graduates have knowledge of the assessment of personality, intelligence and attitudes, interviewing techniques, questionnaire design and analysis, child development, and methods of teaching and learning. This knowledge can be applied to an enormous number of occupations and professions like market research, social work, personnel management and career guidance. They may also be involved in investigations such as crime detection and lie detection. Psychology is a popular subject in competitive examinations like the civil services.

Indian Civil Services are the most powerful, glamorous and coveted of all Indian services. Officers have a wide variety of duties and responsibilities ranging from maintenance of law and order, collection of taxes, to developmental work within State and Central areas of jurisdiction, implementation of social welfare activities, etc.

Recruitment to these offices is through the All India Combined Competitive Examination for the Civil Services, conducted by UPSC.

The examination consists of three levels: Preliminary Examination (two papers of multiple-choice questions), Main Examination (nine papers of essay type questions) and interview. This is truly an intense competitive examination and requires at least one year of dedicated preparation. To appear in this examination one should have completed graduation in any stream. However, the standard of questions is usually an inter-mix of both graduate and post graduate level of study.


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I'm always feeling sleepy and hopeless

I am in Class X and I want to improve in my studies. My problem is that I sleep a lot; I'm always feeling sleepy and hopeless. As I am not as intelligent as other students, I need more time to study, but I can't manage my 'sleep'.

Looks like you find yourself slow and struggling with your studies due to excessive sleep, and you feel quite hopeless, too.

Excess sleepiness can be due to an underlying health condition: lack of certain vitamins in your diet; lack of exercise leading to lethargy; not getting enough sleep at night, and so on. These could also lead you to a low mood. Visit your family doctor at the earliest to find out the reason.

At the same time, make sure you get exercise - especially in the morning. Exercise boosts brain power and also helps you to feel good about yourself. If you feel sleepy only when studying it could be due to your lack of interest in studies, not understanding what you learn, or not using the right methods to study.

Most importantly, if you feel hopeless most of the time, do connect with a counsellor in person, at the earliest. She or he will help and support you.


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His friends poisoned his mind

I was in a relationship with a boy of my age. We were always there for each other. But, his friends poisoned his mind and told him false stories about my best friend and I; that we are in a relationship behind his back. Due to this, my boyfriend broke up with me. I know he still loves me and I too love him a lot, but I don't know what I should do now.

Looks like you and your boyfriend shared a supportive relationship. You miss him a lot and would very much like to have him back.

However, if he has allowed his friends to 'poison his mind', it looks like he didn't trust you much, unless something happened to break that trust. It is important to reflect on why your friendship with your "best friend" has caused so much trouble. Did you spend more time with your best friend than with your boyfriend? What could have happened to make his friends say that you and your best friend were 'in a relationship behind his back’?

Looks like he is unwilling to speak to you. If he is willing to talk - as you say you are quite sure he still loves you - then ask him for a meet. Find out what has made him upset, as well as discuss your feelings and clear the misunderstandings. However, if he is unwilling to meet and listen to your point of view and your feelings, then you need to let go.


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She thinks of me as just a friend

I am deeply in love with a girl who is a year younger to me. I think about her every day. I even proposed to her, but she rejected it. I've been in love with her for more than a year. We often meet, too. Our mutual friends think that we're perfect for each other. But, she thinks of me as just a friend. The good thing is that my feelings for her don't affect my studies in any way. It's the first time I've ever felt this way about any girl.

Looks like you have a crush on this girl and she is quite special for you.

If she doesn't return your feelings, there is nothing much that you can do, except enjoy your friendship, for that too is a precious relationship.

A year is a long time for one-sided feelings. While it is great that it is not getting in the way of your studies, it does take up your mind-space - time that could be spent on developing your personality, your talents and hobbies, etc. Meeting her often, and having your friends to tell you you're 'perfect for each other' won't help you to move on with your life. So, help yourself to move on. Ask your friends to stop discussing about you as "a perfect pair", meet her less often. Make new friends, too. One day you will meet someone who will return your feelings and you will find that to be more fulfilling.


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My parents don't love me

I am the eldest son in my family. I have two younger sisters, aged 7 and 12. My parents are very protective of them and can't stand any wrong done against them. I enjoy playing or fooling with my sisters but my parents don't like it. They assume that I will "harm" them. They don't trust me with my sisters. I am older, chronologically and physically, and there's a possibility of me harming them. My parents also think I'm not good enough in studies and compare me with them. No matter how hard I work, my parents assume that I don't do anything good. The other day when I was playing with my siblings and one of them got injured and my parents threatened to "send me away". When I confronted them and asked if they really meant what they said, they replied: "Yes, we want you to go". They don't love me. Why?

Looks like you feel quite confused by your parents' behaviour. It makes you feel unloved. Before anything, do reflect on what you have shared, it will help you find your answers: What kind of 'play’ or 'fooling around' do you do? You may have no intention of harming them, but the reality is that one of them accidentally got injured. ‘What 'trouble' do your parents have to say: 'we don't need you around to cause....’? What makes them think you 'don't do anything good’?

Has any of the above happened before? If yes, it is natural that your parents are concerned about your sisters' safety, and also about your behaviour. If you want to win back your parents' trust, here are some changes you need to make in your behaviour:

1. Find different ways to show affection to your sisters. Perhaps you can show you care by playing board games or by helping them in some way. Be an encouraging and supportive older brother.

2.  Make friends with other people of your age. Channel your energy into exercises and sports. Focus on your future, your career, your hobbies, etc. Take responsibility and offer to help at home.

3. Reach out to your parents. Share your feelings with them: "I feel very hurt when you ask me to go.” Ask: "What can I do differently that we can get on better?" Tell them you want to make them feel proud of you and ask them what would make them feel proud of you. If they won't agree to a conversation ask a trusted older person to help. Only when your parents see a change in you, they will begin to trust you; and when you change you will feel better about yourself.


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