What is the career in the field of Virology?

Lockdown, social distancing, and quarantine have become an integral part of our lives over the last one year. With fear gripping the world due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it has been challenging times for doctors, health care professionals and, of course, virologists – as they had to study and research about the deadly virus and its various mutants.

While the world has found some ray of hope amid gloom – thanks to the vaccination process – most countries have stepped up their health infrastructure and research monitoring. In the recently announced Union budget, the Indian government, too, has pledged to fund four national virology institutes and nine high-containment laboratories for research and studies on infectious pathogens, making virology a viable career option.

A study of viruses and virus-like agents that affect humans, animals and plants, virology is identifying the nature of the virus and coming up with vaccines to prevent them. So if you are interested in science and have a research-orientation, the field of virology could be the perfect choice for you.

How it works

So, one may wonder what exactly is the role of virologists. Virology is definitely a challenging field, but at the same time, it is quite interesting too. Virologists examine the structure of viruses, classify them and monitor their evolution as well as their interactions with host cells and the way other living creatures fight them. Virology also focusses on the spread of infectious disease, including threats such as the common cold, rabies, yellow fever, and polio.


A plethora of opportunities are available to virologists in both the public and the private sector. In the public sector, virologists work with government institutes and laboratories. They are also in demand in the pharmaceutical sector. Working with pharma companies, virologists help develop vaccines and medicines for contagious disease and infections. Virologists can also opt for an academic life by teaching in colleges and universities. Often medical doctors specialise in virology to carry out clinical research or work with patients with such viruses. If you have a desire to educate people about viruses and infections, you can also venture into science writing after training in virology.

What to study?

To work as a virologist, you need a background in Biology, Microbiology or Immunology. To qualify as a virologist, you can opt for a Master of Science (M.Sc) in Virology offered by several colleges and universities. Some colleges also offer specialisations in Clinical Virology and Infection Biology.



  • National Institute of Virology, Savitribai Phule University, Pune: M.Sc in Virology

  • Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati: M.Sc in Virology

  • Manipal University, Karnataka: M.Sc in Clinical Virology

  • Amity Institute of Virology and Immunology, Noida: M.Sc. (Immunology), M.Sc. (Medical Microbiology), M.Sc. (Virology), and PG Diploma in Clinical Virology and Immunology


  • University of Glasgow, the U.K.: M.Sc in Infection Biology

  • University of Cambrige, the U.K.: M.Phil in Biology Science (Pathology)

  • University of Oxford, the U.K.: M.Sc Integrated Immunology


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What is the career in the field of image consultancy?

A limp handshake at a job interview, stumbling over your words during a presentation, or wearing the wrong outfit to an official meeting. Impressions can make or break your professional image. That's where an image consultant steps in. From social graces and power dressing to dining and business etiquette, image consultants help you refine your appearance and personality.

Image consultancies or finishing schools work with a spectrum of working professionals, including successful entrepreneurs, celebrities and corporate organisations. They help cultivate their image and create personal brand that suits their goals and profession.

How it works

Image consultants offer a wide array of services such as lessons on good first impressions, the right body language and soft skills. They help in honing your communication skills and emotional intelligence. They also advise you on your digital footprint. Often programmes are customised to meet individual needs. The focus is on holistic personality development.

Image consultancy vs. personal stylist

Image consultants hold different titles such as etiquette consultants, wardrobe consultants or style coaches. But often they are mistaken for personal stylists.

While both image consultancy and personal stylists deal with the appearance of the client, image consultancy goes beyond looks to behaviour and communication skills. A personal stylist will dress you up for a particular event such as a party or a wedding whereas image consultants give recommendations on your personal styling and behaviour, which will stay with you forever.

What are the job prospects?

From working professionals to homemakers and students, people from varied backgrounds are willing to invest time and resources in building their image. This makes image consultancy a lucrative career. Image matters even for companies. The personality of a company can influence how it's perceived in the market, its clients and revenue. So corporate too hire image consultants to train their employees to present the right professional image.\

What to study?

Many private institutes offer certification and training in image consultancy, but these can be expensive. Although you do not require any formal course or degree to start working as an image consultant, a certification from a reputed institute helps build credibility.

Many private training institutes in India and abroad offer foundation and advanced courses in image consultancy A few institutes also offer online certification



  • Image Consulting Business Institute, Mumbai, Delhi, Bengaluru; and Indian School of Image Management, Mumbai; Certificate in Image Consultancy

  • Florina Finishing School, Bengaluru and First Impression (a unit of Franknn group), Bhubaneswar, Cuttack and Amritsar: Training courses in Image Consultancy


  • The Association of Image Consultants International, the U.S.: Certificate in Image Consultancy, Certificate as Image Professional; and Certificate as Image Master

  • Blackford Centre for Image Consulting, the U.K.: Diploma in Image Consultancy


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What is gender equality?


Gender goes beyond biological sex and the binary of male or female. It is what one identifies with. And, gender equality is a human right. It refers to the equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities of all humans, irrespective of whatever gender one identifies with. Which is to say, we cannot be allowed or denied something simply because we identify or don’t identify with a certain gender. We must be seen and treated as individuals.

Why is it important?

Gender equality creates an equal world. Inequality gives power and advantage to some people while excluding others. It is harmful. For instance, if you love to go to school, but are stopped from going simply because of your gender, it stops you not just from learning, but also from realizing your dream and becoming the person you want to be. This could make you unhappy, fall ill and distance yourself from others. On the other hand, when you go to school, learn, and achieve your dream, it benefits not just you but also your area of work, the people around you, and society. You will inspire many others to dream big, and be a team player too. Here’s another example. If you are excluded from doing chores at home simply because of your gender, someone else is burdened with doing your share of the work. It is possible that later on you will struggle to (learn to) do that work or feel entitled. However, when you are treated as an individual capable of doing any work, it is likely that you will grow to be independent, compassionate, secure, motivated, happy, and open-minded. Understanding that all genders are equal takes us a step closer to a happier, more compassionate and peaceful world.


  • It doesn’t matter what gender you identify with. You are free to learn any subject, play any type of games or with any toy.

  • You need not hide certain emotions simply because they are seen as “Weak” or “unfit” for your gender. As humans, we all experience different kinds of emotions, and it is good to express and learn to handle them effectively.

  • We all have unique characteristics. Use their traits – and not their gender – understand other people. No gender-based name calling or put-downs.

  • To never use one’s gender to justify or excuse their behavior.

  • No skill, role or task is tied to gender. At home or at school, everyone must work together, and take up all kinds of responsibilities.

  • Your aspirations need not be defined by your gender. You can do whatever you set out to, if you have the interest for it, and work hard.

  • To speak up when you witness gender inequality - at home or at school.

What is dramatic monologue?

“Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears;

I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.

The evil that men do lives after them;

The good is oft interred with their bones;

So let it be with Caesar…”

Strong and hard-hitting, you’re probably familiar with these lines from William Shakespeare’s well-known play, “Julius Caesar”. But did you know that this famous address by Marc Antony to the people of Rome is known as a monologue?

Dramatic monologues are popular literary devices. They are long speeches delivered by a single character on stage in a theatre production or on camera in a film. Monologues can be traced back to ancient Greek theatre. The term itself is derived from the Greek words monos (single) and legein (to speak).

Monologues offer a peek into the backstory of the character spoken about. Since a monologue turns the spotlight on a particular character, it offers that actor a unique opportunity to display his acting prowess.

But monologues are not to be confused with soliloquies, which are often internal reflections of a character on stage when alone. While a monologue is addressed to other characters and the audience, soliloquy as a device is employed when a character is talking to itself I and when it’s not meant to be heard by the other characters in the production. Soliloquy is a form of internal monologue. The “To Be or Not to Be” speech from Shakespeare’s “Hamlet” is arguably the best example of a soliloquy monologue.


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I am the shortest fellow in my class

I am 20 years old. I am the shortest fellow in my class. All my friends mock me. I cannot say anything to them because they are my best buddies. Even my girlfriend left me because of this. I am so depressed and down that I don't feel like going to school. They are also calling me 'chhottu namboodiri'. Please help me.

You feel hurt when your friends tease you about your height; you feel quite helpless that you can't deal with their behaviour effectively.

If you want to stop this teasing without damaging your friendship, have a frank talk with your friends. Include the following: your feelings, that you value their friendship, but you also value yourself, and the action you want, etc. For example: "I feel hurt when you, my closest friends, tease me and make fun of my height. I am fine with my height, but I don't like being teased about it. I would like you to stop this." Be firm when requesting them to stop. If they still continue to tease you after a few times of your asking them to stop, evaluate: Are they really your friends? Or just having a laugh at your expense?

Simultaneously, develop your personality, maximize your strengths and avoid self-pity. When you value and respect yourself, others will also respect you. Take inspiration from others: Actor Danny De Vito is just 4 feet 10 inches, but he has found his talent and showcases it. Remember: gold kept in a 'tiny' box is far more valuable than many 'big' objects! It has its own shine. Find the gold within you and even though you are short, you can become a person that others will look up to!


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I want him only as a friend

I am a girl of 17. It is three years since I have chosen a boy as my "best" friend. My parents know of our friendship and have never objected to it. One day he suddenly declared his love for me, taking me by surprise. But, I want him only as a friend and nothing more. How do I get out of this situation without hurting him?

Looks like you're in a dilemma – your "best" friend wishes to become your boyfriend, which you don't want. You are dismayed and upset that your treasured relationship has undergone an irreversible change. And now that he has declared a romantic interest in you, no matter what you tell him, you risk losing his friendship.

The gentlest way to break this dilemma is to be frank yet compassionate. Tell him that you are fond of him and appreciate him as your best friend, but that you don't see him as anything more than that at this point. Tell him lovingly that you're aware that he will feel hurt by what you say and that you feel bad, too. Since you have been close friends, seek his participation to find a good solution to the problem. Ask him, 'how can we work through this and yet retain our friendship?' If he thinks that he cannot remain your friend only, he might cut off the friendship; or he may want time away for a while, or he might even accept your decision and choose to continue as good friends. No matter what the response, you will need to support and accept his choice, and he yours.


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My parents drive her away

I am 14 years old, and the only boy in my family. Whenever a girl tries to make friends with me, my parents drive her away by being rude and impolite to her. My sisters are even worse. I am fed up!

You sound so frustrated and embarrassed that your parents treat any girl who comes to meet you with suspicion and are rude and impolite to her.

The best way to find out why they do this is to have a frank talk with them. Perhaps they are worried that you will lose focus on studies? Or that you are breaking family and social traditions? Or is it something else? Also, be clear about your own intentions: Are girls just "friends' for you, or do you want a girlfriend?

Explain to your family members that it embarrasses you when they are rude to a guest, and that it doesn't make them look good either. Ask them what makes them uncomfortable when a girl tries to make friends with you. Acknowledge and accept what they say with an open mind. At present, if they feel that you don't need a girlfriend, respect it. Ask if they are fine with a mixed group of friends coming home. It will help your family to gradually become comfortable with both girls and boys as your friends. Once they know your group, they may not object to 'girl' friends from your group coming over sometimes. As for having girlfriends, there's plenty of time for that later!


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I fear for my parents

I am a 19-year-old boy and my parents are quite old. My problem is that whenever my father goes out or I go somewhere, I feel that my father may meet with an accident or that my mother may not be safe alone in the house. To add to my fears my father is a heart patient. I do not have the courage to leave them alone. I don't care about myself, but I will not be able to bear my parents death. Due to this I am not able to concentrate on my studies or go anywhere. How can I overcome this fear?

You feel so anxious about your parents' well-being and safety and fear the worst will happen to them. Perhaps you are afraid of being left alone in this world, and this makes you over-attached to them!

You cannot control everything that happens, so focus your energy on what you can.

1. Think helpful thoughts: Imagine your thoughts are like a hat - you can choose which to wear. Instead of I don't..." or I can't..., try these: 'I may face challenges, but I can overcome them', 'When I care about myself, I can take care of my parents better, 'God gives me the strength to face life, then why fear?'

2. Take positive action: Find solutions. Some examples: hiring a maid during the day can ensure that your mother has company. Discussing your father's heart treatment with him can help you feel better prepared to help him if he requires it.

3. Pray: While death is inevitable for everyone, faith in God will help us to accept it when the time comes. Pray, asking God to help you build inner strength.

4. Refocus: Instead of focusing on death, focus on loving your parents and enjoying each moment with them. Help your mum at home; go for a walk with both of them, spend more time with them, do some activities that all the three of you will enjoy. Each day, express gratitude for your parents’ presence in your life.

5. Balance your life: Make friends. The more you connect with others, the happier and healthier you will be. Focus on building a career. Your parents would love to see you happy and well-settled in life.

6. Seek support: Instead of going it alone, seek help to work through your fears talk to a counsellor, a priest/ pastor, a mature friend/an elder.

Fear can be 'Forget Everything and Run' or 'Face Everything and Rise'. The choice is yours.


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What is the career in the field of sustainable architecture?

"A building is alive, like a man... Its maker gives it the soul and every wall, window and stairway to express it." - Ayn Rand, "The Fountainhead".

And it's the architects who breathe life into buildings.

With the recent push towards sustainability, there is growing awareness around mindful construction in conjunction with nature. This has given rise to a fresh wave of architects who are designing eco-friendly spaces.

What is sustainable architecture?

The building and construction industry is one of the major contributors of greenhouse gas emissions. So sustainable architecture seeks to reduce the impact on the environment at every stage. This is done using locally available resources, natural materials, energy efficient and climate-friendly methods.

What to study?

To work as an architect, aspirants need a Bachelors in Architecture (B.Arch) and Masters in Architecture (M.Arch). Students from the science stream are eligible to pursue these degrees. Recently, many institutes have been offering  postgraduate specialisations in Sustainable or Green Architecture. Some institutes also provide one year diploma or short-term courses on specific subjects such as energy efficiency, rainwater harvesting, water management, sustainable building materials and waste management.

Where to study


  • National Institute of Technology, Calicut: B.Arch

  • School of Planning and Architecture, Vijaywada: M.Arch in Sustainable Architecture

  • Rachna Sansad's Institute of Environment, Mumbai: Masters in Environmental Architecture

  • National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu: M.Arch in Energy Efficient and Sustainable Architecture.

  • Bharati Vidyapeeth, Pune: M. Arch (Sustainable Architecture).

  • Centre for Environmental Planning and Technologuy University, Ahmedabad: Masters in Urban Design, and M.Arch in Conservation and Regeneration

  • Sir J.J.School of Architecture, Mumbai: B.Arch and M. Arch


  • Nottingham University, the U.K.: M.Arch (Architecture and Sustainable Design)

  • University of Greenwich, the U.K.: M.Sc (Sustainable Building Design and Engineering)

  • University of Leeds, School of Earth & Environment, the U.K.: M.Sc (Sustainable Cities)

  • Centre for Alternative Technology, Graduate School of the Environment, the U.K.: M.Sc Sustainability and adaptation in the Built Environment; M.Sc Green Building, and M. Arch (Sustainable Architecture).

  • National University of Singapore: Masters in Urban Design

Required skills

  • Enhanced design abilities

  • Technical and software skills

  • A holistic perspective of environmental sustainability

  • Knowledge of global and local environmental issues

  • Ability to come up with innovative solutions


In India, green building rating systems such as the Indian Green Building Council's rating system and Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment offer training courses and opportunities to accreditation for green building professionals.


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What is the career in the field of radio jockeying?

Cooped up at home during the COVID-19 lockdown last year, many of us might have tuned into the radio to hear a friendly voice. The radio jockey's bubbly personality and an incessant stream of chatter can put a smile on our face, lift our mood, and maybe even make us feel a little less lonely. We can form a strange connection with RJs even if we cannot see them. This is the power of radio. And it has managed to stay on even with the television and the Internet. In an effort to stay relevant, radio programming too has evolved, opening up several opportunities for radio jockeys.

Who is a radio jockey?

Radio Jockeys or RJs are the people who anchor programmes and give commentaries on the radio.

Keeping the listeners engaged by playing music or conversing with guests is a major part of their job. So, they must keep abreast of the latest music scene and news events.

Besides content, RJs are also trained in handling the technical side of the show. They are expected to operate the mics, mixers and add sound effects whenever required.

What are the job prospects?

Radio in India has come a long way since the heydays of the All India Radio and Aakashvani. The entry of FM and private channels has expanded the scope of radio as a source of entertainment. One of the popular roles at the radio station is that of a radio jockey. Some of the major radio stations today are Big FM 92.7, Radio Mirchi 98.3, Red FM 93.5, and Fever 104 FM. In countries such as the U.S. and the U.K., Internet radio stations have also opened up. But in a modern-day radio set-up anywhere in the world today, RIs might also be required to come up with audio-video content to popularise their show on social media.

What to study?

Radio jockeys do not necessarily need to have any particular educational qualification. People from different fields, who possess the required skills, can work as radio jockeys. However, a diploma or degree courses in radio and broadcasting is recommended.


  • Asian College of Journalism, Chennai: Post Graduate Diploma in Radio Journalism and Communication.

  • Benett University, Noida: Post Graduate Diploma in Radio Broadcasting

  • Centre for Research in Art, Film and Television, Delhi: Certificate Course in Radio Jockeying.

  • Academy of Radio Management (ARM), Delhi: Diploma in Professional Radio Jockeying (DR).

  • St. Xaviers Institute of Communication, Mumbai: Workshop on radio jockeying and presentation skills.

  • College of Journalism and Mass Communication (MGM) University, Aurangabad: Certificate course in Radio Jockeing (a two-month online course.); B.A. and M.A. Mass Communication and Journalism.

Required skills

  • Speaking fluently

  • Voice modulation

  • Creativity

  • Ability to improvise

  • Scripting shows

  • Strong interpersonal skills

  • Sense of humour

  • Versatility

  • Discerning ear

  • Technical knowledge


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