What is the career in the field of manuscriptology?

What is manuscriptology?

As the name suggests, the field of manuscriptology looks at history through its written literature, particularly handwritten documents. A scientific study of manuscripts, it revolves around deciphering, reading, and dating historical manuscripts.

Manuscripts can offer deep insights into how people lived in a particular age and time in history. And India has a vast repository of ancient manuscripts - more than 50 lakh in the country itself, while some 60,000 Indian manuscripts are in possession of European countries, according to the National Manuscript Mission.

How it works

Manuscriptologists study the scripts and help catalogue them. They specialise in the preparation of raw material, study of development of scripts and alphabets, translation, interpretation, the reconstruction of texts, conservation and storage, designing archives for manuscripts, and cataloguing. Manuscriptologists often work with archaelogists and palaeologists to help them make sense of documents recovered from the past.

What are the job prospects?

Manuscriptologists are in demand right now as there is a move to digitise manuscripts as part of the UNESCO's Memory of the World Register, a compendium of documentary heritage of exceptional value. As a manuscriptologist, you can work with different manuscript research institutes in India. The National Manuscript Mission is the apex body under the Central Government. Similarly you can be a part of the Institute of Asian Studies, which serves as Asian regional training centre for UNESCO's Memory of the World project.

What to study

Several institutes in India offer postgraduate and certificate courses in Manuscriptology. It is advisable to also pursue a Bachelors or a Masters degree in an Indian language, especially Sanskrit.


  • University of Mumbai: Certificate course in Manuscriptology, Masters of Arts in Archaeology 

  • Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, Bengaluru: Postgraduate (PG) Diploma course in Manuscriptology and Palaeography

  • KJ. Somaiya Centre for Buddhist Studies, Mumbai: Certificate course in Manuscriptology

  • Pondicherry University: PG Diploma in Manuscriptology and Palegography

  • Centre of Studies for Manuscriptology, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kerala: PhD in Manuscriptology

  • Deccan College, Pune: M.A. in Sanskrit


  • First discovered in the 1940s, the Dead Sea Scrolls are thought to be the second oldest surviving manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible. They are of religious, cultural, historic, and linguistic significance.

  • The Dispilio Tablet, a wooden tablet carved with a set of heiroglyphs that was preserved in lake mud for more than 7,000 years, is probably the oldest manuscript in the world.


  • In India, manuscripts were written on materials such as tala patra (palm-leaf). bhurja patra (birch-bark), leather (animal skin), tulapat (a type of paper made out of cotton).

  • They are written in ancient languages such as Sanskrit, Brahmi, Pali, Prakrti, Burmese, Sinhalese, Newari and Tibetan, along with Urdu, Arabic, and Persian.


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How about a career in food anthropology?

Everyone loves a good biryani. But did you know that the fragrant rice has a long and complicated history, going all the way back to ancient Iran and traders on the spice route? From the floating markets of Bangkok, to the Tunday kebab corners of Lucknow, food can give us pertinent clues into the ways humans evolved and culture emerged. Believe it or not, there is an entire field devoted to tracing the origins of food, understanding its cultural context, and documenting its evolution. So if you have an appetite for both food and its lore, take a bite of food anthropology.

What is food anthropology?

Food anthropology is a sub-discipline of anthropology. Sidney Mintz known as the Father of Food Anthropology, cemented the study of food as a key insight into modern social life. His work "Sweetness and Power" (1985) linked British demand for sugar with the creation of empire and exploitative industrial labour conditions.

Food anthropologists investigate how people lived in the past by studying what they ate. They trace the traditions and techniques that are part of the culinary heritage. Food anthropology can reveal everything from how humans travelled long distances in ancient times to the emergence of different empires and power relationships. Food anthropology is an emerging field in India.

What are the job prospects?

Food anthropologists blog, write books on food history, and contribute columns to newspapers. Five-star hotels often bring them on board as consultants while preparing a new menu or exploring new cuisines. Food anthropologists could even get a chance to host their own food travel shows. A degree in Food Anthropology can also help you work in the field of food production.

Required skills

  • A love for food and history is, needless to say, a must.

  • Communication skills and writing skills are equally important.

  • You need to be able to keep yourself updated on the latest food trends.

  • Observational skills

  • Ability to make incisive commentary.

What to study

To become a food anthropologist you need to be well-versed with history and culture. So an undergraduate and postgraduate course in History is recommended. Food anthropology is covered as a module in history courses in Indian universities. Some universities have a Bachelors or a Masters in Food Studies, which provides cultural, historical, and sociological aspects of food. Where: India:

  • St. Xaviers College,, Mumbai: M.A. in Ancient Indian History, Culture and Archaeology

  • Ashoka University. Haryana: B.A. Hons. History


  • School of African and Oriental Studies, University of London, the U.K.: Masters in Food Anthropology

  • College of Social Sciences, University of Exeter, the U.K.: M.A. in Food Studies

  • Indiana University Bloomington, the U.S.: B.A. in Anthropology of Food

  • Brown University, the U.S.: Offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses in Food Studies.


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What are the qualifications required to study in a B-school?

I am doing my BBM (second year). I would like to do an MBA. What are the qualifications required to study in a B-school? How do I prepare myself?

Eligibility for joining Masters in Business Administration (MBA) is graduation with any stream. Selection to these courses is generally through entrance tests, which have questions on verbal ability, comprehension, data interpretation, and logical reasoning and quantitative ability. You may join a coaching institute or prepare through self-study with the help of ready material. The more reputed the institute/university, the tougher is the selection process and better the work opportunities following the course.


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I am inclined towards Mathematics and English

I am in Class 11. I am inclined towards Mathematics and English and would like to pursue them in my higher studies. What career options are available involving only these two subjects?

Mathematics and English both provide an excellent foundation for any career. Rather these subjects are usually a prerequisite to entrance exams for any course.

A graduate in Mathematics can find jobs in the financial world or develop careers in computing and information technologies. Those with a Master's degree may work in research and development departments and be involved working on the problems of another field by using their skills in modelling and analyzing. They may also appear for the Indian Statistical Service (ISS) Examination conducted by UPSC. Applied mathematicians can be found in the staff of many private industries like aerospace, oil, electronics, manufacturing, geology, geophysics, insurance, chemistry, communications, and computing. The government departments employ a surprising number of mathematicians for research and problem solving.

Many of the skills obtained through the study of English are highly prized in every job or profession. Creative writing, technical writing, translation, teaching and publishing are some of the options open to English graduates. Due to their improved communication skills, even advertising and PR agencies find them more suitable for their work.


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How can I make a career in Geology?

How can I make a career in Geology? Do I have to take Science or Arts to become a geologist? Please give me some highlights about the career of a geologist.

Geology is the science that studies the earth's history, composition and structure. Geologists examine rocks, minerals, fossil remains of animals and plant life in order to formulate and test theories on natural processes affecting the earth and to explore for mineral resources.

Some geologists teach and conduct research in academic settings; while others are involved in research, exploration, and engineering programmes in the private sector. Most geologists divide their time between field and laboratory work, data analysis, and office duties. Out-of-doors, they collect rock samples and fossils, measuring the strata, and gather other types of information to be used in the preparation of reports and maps. Once the field work is completed, the samples and other data that have been collected are usually taken to the laboratory for more detailed study. Then they write reports and raft maps and diagrams to illustrate the results of their studies. Often, geologic work is good detective work. That's why it is important to be inquiring, observant, patient and self-motivated.

It can be studied after 10+2 (PCM). Graduate and postgraduate courses in geology are offered by many universities. IIT Kharagpur offers a five-year integrated course in Exploration Geophysics after 10+2.


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I want to be an I.A.S. officer

I am a student of Class 10 and I want to be an I.A.S. officer. I'm not able to decide which subject I should choose as my intermediate. I like English, Maths, Geography, History/Civics and Environmental Studies. Is there any scope with these subjects?

To become an IAS officer, you need to appear in the Civil Services Examination, conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) Selection is done through three stages: Preliminary Examination (Prelims), Mains Examination (Mains) and Personality Test (Interview).

To appear in this examination one should have completed one's graduation in any stream. However, the standard of questions is usually an inter-mix of both graduate and post-graduate level of study. If your aim is to appear in this examination, I suggest you take the subjects in which you're most comfortable. You'll be able to spend more time studying only when the subject interests you.

Although regarded as one of the toughest exams in the country, with the right approach and strategy, an aspirant can crack the IAS examination in the very first attempt.


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I am interested in both Arts and Commerce

I am interested in both Arts and Commerce. I am planning to take Arts as a subject and do C.A. as an additional qualification degree. I've heard that C.A. can be done only by taking either PCM or Commerce. Is that right?

10+2 students with any stream can go for a Chartered Accountancy course. First you need to appear in CPT (Common Proficiency Test). It is a test of four subjects, i.e., Accounting, Mercantile Laws General Economics and Quantitative Aptitude.

After acquiring minimum qualifying marks in CPT exam, you will join IPCC (Integrated Professional Competence Course), followed by articleship and final course. The entire duration of the CA course is around 4.5 years, if a student clears every exam in the first attempt.

The examination syllabus of C.A. is quite extensive and in depth studies are required. ICAI (icai.org) provides the required theoretical knowledge through postal tuition as well as practical training.


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I’m a Class 11 student of Humanities. Can you tell me if there are placement offers for B.A. students?

An Arts degree opens up a vast array of career choices and opportunities. You can enter into Public Sector Banks through examinations for Bank Probationary Officers. It is one of the highest entry-level job profiles for which an examination is conducted nationwide. Other Government jobs are in Central Secretariat, Railways and many more. They conduct separate entrance tests like UPSC, SSC CGL, Railway Exam and LIC.

If you're good in communication, you can join a BPO as a Customer Service Associate or a Relationship Executive. Another option for Arts graduates with a great personality and outgoing character is Public Relations. This field offers great job prospects along with lucrative salaries. If you are good in writing, you can join any media house as a Sub-Editor or an Ad Agency as a Copywriter.

If you are interested in a particular subject, you can go for further specialization in that subject. For example, Psychology is recommended if you have an interest in working with people. A strong foundation in the understanding of human behaviour opens the career door to a variety of options including personnel work for a company, child development, counselling and law, just to name a few.

Still, getting a job with the Arts stream is not that easy. Because of the limited number of opportunities in this field, only the best lot get good jobs. So enter into the Arts stream only if you really like those subjects and can excel in that field. Also, if you are planning to take Arts because you do not want to study, then you are in the wrong stream! Rather, in this stream you should be self-motivated to study and need to work hard, since there is not much of pressure from faculty.

To better equip yourself for future challenges, think about combining your Arts degree with a career oriented advanced degree. While Political Science, Philosophy and Psychology are excellent exercises for your mind muscle, they will be more marketable if you combine them with career-oriented fields such as public administration or personnel management.


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I hate talking to my parents

When I was in school I never had any problems with my studies and was always successful. But after joining the college, things have changed. I get angry easily and dislike talking with my parents. I can’t concentrate on my studies, either.

Looks like life has changed one-eighty degrees between school and college. You’re feeling quite out of control, and anger and irritability are often the ways we use in order to cope with this. Teenage is the time of turbulence: with hormonal and physical changes, it is the time to find your own identity as a person. Parental instructions seem like nagging, and we feel misunderstood by them. When angry it is difficult to focus on your studies because your emotions are high, and your attention is elsewhere.

To manage your emotions, use the Aware-Acknowledge-Allow technique.

Awareness: Ask yourself ‘What am I feeling now?’Hurt? Frustrated? ‘What is happening in my body?’ Do I have a tight jaw? A headache? Any other sensation? Simply observe this.

Acknowledge and accept the emotion by labeling it. State: I feel angry/frustrated. It is okay to feel what you feel, but it is not always okay to act on it. For example, it is okay to feel angry, but not okay to act violently.

Allow the feeling to flow. You can express it (by crying, growling, breathing, etc.) or channel it creatively (Expression | Exercise | Sport | Music | Dance | Art | Journaling, Breathing) in any way that makes you feel good, as long as it doesn’t harm you or others.

In addition, focus on the career you wish to pursue, and accordingly set a routine for your studies. Pursue one serious hobby. Reach out to your parents as people rather than just parents – get to know them, find out what you have in common. Offer to help your mother in household works. Help them with something they need to learn. You will slowly find your relationship changing. Go ahead… you can do it!


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My friends call me a girl

I am a boy studying in Std IX. My friends call me a girl. This hurts me a lot. I’m weak, too, so I cannot fight with them. Because of this, my studies have been affected. Please help.

It must be quite embarrassing for you to be teased and called a girl. However, it is worse if you think of and label yourself as weak. Fighting is not the solution, developing your personality and standing up to your friends is!

Teenage is a time of transition. Your friends may have developed more quickly than you, but it doesn’t mean you won’t. In another year or so you too will begin to develop a manly physique and traits owing to hormonal changes. So, help the process along: Exercise regularly, play a sport, and eat nutritious food. It will help build muscles and tone up your body. Moreover, develop your personality by making friends with new people, exchanging ideas and learning from them. Find your talents by trying new things, joining a class or two. Watch informative programmes, build your general knowledge. Learn problem-solving skills… and help other people.

Stand up to your friends and firmly tell them that enough; you do not appreciate them teasing you and that you will grow and develop in your own time. True friends are supportive.

Most importantly, accept yourself for who you are and start seeing your own worth. Begin today!


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I love a girl who is older than me

I am a 16-year-old-boy. I love a girl who is three years older than me. I’ve had feelings for her right from the beginning. I proposed to her but she did not give me an answer. After some days she said ‘yes’. But, my friends are discouraging me saying she is older than me, and telling me to leave her. All the same, I love her.

You feel attracted to an older girl but are being discouraged by your friends from pursuing the relationships. Your friend do mean well for you (it is a bonus if our friends are on our side, and they also like the person we are interested in) so do acknowledge their concern and thank them for it.

In a relationship, what is more important than age is the quality of the bond you share, and this bond takes time and effort to develop. More important than ‘proposing’ to her is getting to know each other as friends. Declaring love for someone before you even know him/her as a person is like putting the cart before the horse… it is liking a ‘dream image’ of that person and not the person. So, slow down and get to know her first. Later, introduce her to your friends and include her in your group if everyone is comfortable. Once you have gotten to know each other, you take the relationship forward suitably. Where’s the hurry?


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I am seriously disturbed!

I am 15 and my boyfriend is 17. We are in a very healthy relationship. But sometimes I feel as if I’m hiding something from my parents. If I tell them about my boyfriend, they will never allow me to continue this relationship. I am seriously disturbed.

While you have a good relationship with your boyfriend, you’re feeling quite guilty about doing things behind your parents’ back, knowing they will not approve, and this makes you quite stressed. At this point, it is but natural that your parents will not approve of a relationship.

You will know best whether your parents are too orthodox to approve of any relationship in future, or whether they will come around to accepting it once you’re older, and if they know the person you’re in a relationship with. It will help to bring friends of both gender home – including your boyfriend – and let your parents meet them and get to know them and him personally. At the right time, you can introduce the idea of a special friend. Take time to do this and focus on keeping it light for the moment. In any case, the best relationships are first friendships, and they are neither rushed, nor are they a secret.


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What is the career in the field of costume designing?

What is set and costume designing?

All that glitters is gold - at least in films!

On the silver screen, things look smart, classy, and beautiful. Ever wondered what goes into making the fanciful backdrops and sets?

They are the handiwork of a set or production designer.

While set designing is an integral part of any visual production, costumes, too, play a key role. Remember the world fell in love with the Iron Man suit that first appeared in the 2008 film - with its stark red and yellow design and contours? The suit gave a visual appeal to the character and became a talking point.

Larger than life

Production designing includes set and costume designing for performance arts, such as films and plays. The designers collaborate with the filmmakers to create a set based on the time period and theme of the film. Sometimes this involves recreating a complex location, such as the inside of a spaceship or a deep dark forest. Costume designing too is more than just dressing actors. The designers have to ensure that the costume choices suit the storyline, era, and the location. The costumes must also enhance the aesthetic appeal of the scenes.

Behind the scenes

Production designers don't just work on films and television series. They are also roped in for concerts, fashion shows, award functions, events etc. While there are a plethora of opportunities for designers in the entertainment field, other industries too employ the services of these trained professionals. Set designers also use their skills to work on projects for real estate developers, architects, and the government. They create models for the presentation of projects.

While you do not need a specific degree to work as a set and costume designer, a background in fine arts and fashion designing helps. In India, only a few institutes offer exclusive art direction courses. The rest include it in film production cinematography and fashion design. But universities abroad offer theatre design Courses.

What to study and where?


  • Film and Television Institute of India, Pune: Post Graduate Diploma in Art Direction and Production Design

  • Aditya College of Design Studies, Mumbai: One-year course in Set Design

  • Xaviers Institute of Communication, Mumbai: Diploma in Film and Video Production

  • Mass Communication Research Centre, Jamia Millia Islamia. New Delhi: M.A. in Mass Communication (comprising Radio, Television, Film and Audio Visual Production)

  • Film and Television Institute of Tamil Nadu, CIT Campus, Chennai: Diploma in Direction and Screen Play Writing and Diploma in Cinematography

  • Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute, Kolkata: PG Diploma in Direction and Screenplay, Cinematography

  • School of Design and Visual Arts, Apeejay Stya University: Bachelor in Design with specialisation in Fashion Design, Interior Design and Graphic Design


  • Royal Welsh College of Music and Drama: Three-year course in Theatre Design

  • University of the Arts, London: MA. in Performance Design


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What is the career in the field of psephology?

With Tamil Nadu, Kerala, West Bengal, and some of the other States in the country heading for elections this year, you must have come across countless number of predictions and exit polls. Ever wonder who these people are who come up with these statistics and trends?

Well, these professionals are known as psephologists, and they study the science of elections. Deeply interested in politics and elections, these professionals try to understand just what it takes to win elections. Right from planning the campaign to last day voter outreach, psephologists help in planning every phase of elections through scientific research.

What is psephology?

Elections are the key to a successful democracy. And psephology is the scientific study of elections. A branch of political science, it analyses the voting patterns, election trends, and voter behaviour to predict the results. The field has grown with the popularity of opinion polls and post-election surveys.

What are the job prospects?

Psephologists primarily work in media as political analysts. But the job opportunities are not limited to the media alone. Today, even political parties consult psephologists to help them in planning their campaign.

What to study:

While the field is flourishing in India, universities do not offer any formal courses in Psephology. Some universities have started teaching Psephology as part of graduate and postgraduate programmes in Political Science. The field is open to anyone interested in politics and data interpretation Students from varied backgrounds such as engineering and business administration too are joining the stream.


  • Indian Institute of Democratic Leadership, Mumbai: Online Certificate Course in Psephology

  • University of Mumbai, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi: Master of Arts (M.A.) in Political Science

  • Jadavpur University, Kolkata: MA. in Political Science with International Relations


  • University of Manchester, the U.K.: Master of Arts (M.A.) in Political Science Democracy and Elections

  • School of Government University of Birmingham, the U.K: Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) in Political Economy

  • Oxford University, the U.K.: Master of Science (M.Sc) in Politics Research

  • University of Leeds, the U.K.: M.Sc Political Science


The word ‘psephology’ has been derived from the Greek word ‘psephos’, meaning pebble. Why? Well, legend has it that in ancient Greece, people cast their votes using pebbles. Candidates who received most pebbles were elected to the government posts. W.F.R Hardie and R.B. Mc Callum of Oxford University coined the term in1948.


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What is the career in the field of speech therapy?

Communication is the essence of life. But sometimes emotions such as fear and anxiety, trauma or developmental delays can impair our ability to articulate our thoughts properly. For instance, it could cause you to stammer while answering a question asked by your teacher. Or you could end up stuttering when you are really excited about telling a story to your friend.

Sometimes in individuals with speech impairment, this stuttering and stammering is more pronounced. So much so that it can affect their ability to communicate with others and even lower their self-esteem.

That's where a speech therapist comes in. Through therapeutic interventions, a speech therapist can help people overcome these impediments and express themselves fluently.

Speech therapists work with people across all ages from children to senior citizens, and help them improve their quality of life and build their confidence...

How it works

Speech therapists work with children as well as adults who failed to develop normal speech for various reasons. They diagnose and provide therapy for different speech, voice, and language disorders, including stuttering, articulation, difficulties due to a cleft palate, laryngectomy (removal of the larynx), as well as neurological speech disorders, stroke, etc.

What are the job prospects?

Speech therapists can work with hospitals, special schools, and non-government organisations focussing on the speech and hearing impaired. There is a demand for them in departments for Rehabilitation Medicine, Neurology, Plastic Surgery, Pediatrics, and ENT. Recently speech therapists have become actively involved in voice and speech recognition, which finds a number of applications in forensic science.

What to study

Several institutes offer degrees in speech therapy, or speech language pathology coupled with the audiology course at undergraduate and postgraduate levels Audiology is the branch of science that deals with the sense of hearing and balance, and is closely connected to our ability to speak. Some institutes also conduct separate PG programmes in speech- language pathology, audiology, and forensic speech science


  • Ali Yavar Jung National Institute for the Hearing Handicapped, Mumbai (regional centres in Kolkata, Secunderabad, and New Delhi): Bachelor of Science (Audiology, Speech Language Pathology) and Master of Audiology Speech-Language Pathology

  • All India Institute of Speech & Hearing, Mysore: PG Diploma in Forensic Speech Sciences & Technology. PG Diploma in Neuro Audiology and PG Diploma in Augmentative and Alternative Communication.

  • BYL Nair Hospital and Medical College, Mumbai: Master of Science in Audio Speech Therapy.

  • Dr SRC Institute of Speech and Hearing, Bengaluru: Bachelors in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology (BSLPA), Masters in Audiology & Speech-Language Pathology (MASLP).


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