How can I make a career in Geology?



How can I make a career in Geology? Do I have to take Science or Arts to become a geologist? Please give me some highlights about the career of a geologist.



Geology is the science that studies the earth's history, composition and structure. Geologists examine rocks, minerals, fossil remains of animals and plant life in order to formulate and test theories on natural processes affecting the earth and to explore for mineral resources.



Some geologists teach and conduct research in academic settings; while others are involved in research, exploration, and engineering programmes in the private sector. Most geologists divide their time between field and laboratory work, data analysis, and office duties. Out-of-doors, they collect rock samples and fossils, measuring the strata, and gather other types of information to be used in the preparation of reports and maps. Once the field work is completed, the samples and other data that have been collected are usually taken to the laboratory for more detailed study. Then they write reports and raft maps and diagrams to illustrate the results of their studies. Often, geologic work is good detective work. That's why it is important to be inquiring, observant, patient and self-motivated.



It can be studied after 10+2 (PCM). Graduate and postgraduate courses in geology are offered by many universities. IIT Kharagpur offers a five-year integrated course in Exploration Geophysics after 10+2.



 



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What surrounds the Earth?


 



 



Long ago, people believed the sky was a roof that stretched over the earth. Today, we know that a thick layer of air surrounds the earth like the skin on an orange. But unlike an orange skin, the air moves around the earth, and it reaches far above the earth’s surface. This moving cover of air is a mixture of gases called the earth’s atmosphere.



Air covers the earth everywhere. The pull of gravity holds it there. Near the earth, the air is thick, or heavy. Further away from the earth, the air becomes thinner. Furthest away from the earth’s surface, the air thins and disappears altogether. Where this happens is where space begins!




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Who studies the waters?


Many scientists study the ocean, looking into the secrets of the sea. They study how the ocean moves and how it affects the atmosphere. They study the living things in the sea and the shape of the ocean floor.



Scientists who study the ocean are called oceanographers. Sometimes they work aboard ships. Some wear diving suits and air tanks to explore underwater. Others use small submarines. They use underwater cameras to take pictures of the ocean’s floor and the plants and animals that live in the ocean.



Sometimes they use robots to bring up samples of the mud and sand for study. Some scientists study the direction and strength of waves, tides, and currents.



Oceanographers called marine biologists study the plants, fish, and animals that live in the ocean, lakes, and rivers. They keep track of their health and the way they grow.



Oceanographers called seismologists study earthquakes that happen on the ocean floor. One cause of earthquakes is volcano eruptions, so seismologists often keep track of volcanic activity.



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What is underground water called?


Water from Underground



Not all of the earth’s water is in lakes, ponds, rivers, and oceans. A lot of it is beneath your feet - down in the ground.



Rain falls. Snow melts. Much of the water seeps into the ground. It passes through holes and cracks in the soil until it reaches solid rock. The water can’t trickle any further down, so it spreads out, filling every nook and cranny underground.



The top of this underground water is called the water table. When there is a lot of rain, the water soon fills all the open spaces underground. Then the water table gets higher.



In some places, the water table comes all the way to the top of the ground.



Then, water bubbles out and makes a natural fountain called a spring. Sometimes a spring is the start of a river.



Underground water is usually cool and clean and good to drink. People often dig wells to get this water. There is some underground water almost everywhere in the world - even in deserts. But in a desert, the water is often very, very far down underground.



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Why are Lakes important?


You probably know that lakes give us food and drinking water. But did you know that lakes offer transportation and energy sources?



Many lakes are important for fishing. People who live near Lake Titicaca in South America live simply by raising their own food crops and catching fish from the lake, such as trout. Other lakes, like Lake Winnipeg in Canada, support large fishing industries.



Lakes are important for shipping, too. North America’s Great Lakes are connected with each other and to the Atlantic Ocean. Ships from all over the world can use the lakes to bring things to the many large cities around the lakes.



Lake Maracaibo, in northwest Venezuela, the largest lake in South America, has many oil wells in its waters and along its shores. Under the bottom of the Caspian Sea, north of Iran, oil and natural gas have been found.



Finally, lakes are important to wildlife. For example, Lake Baikal in Russia, the deepest lake in the world, is home to many kinds of wildlife found only in that area. These include a fish called the golomyanka and the Baikal seal, one of the few kinds of seals that live in fresh water. Lake Victoria is the largest lake in Africa and the second largest freshwater lake in the world. Flamingos and other birds feed along the edges of the water. Lake Victoria is also known for its many kinds of tropical fish.




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