Cyberbullying is bullying with the use of digital technologies. It can take place on social media, messaging platforms, gaming platforms and mobile phones. It is repeated behaviour, aimed at scaring angering or shaming others. It can go along with face-to-face bullying.


For bullying to stop, it needs to be identified and reporting it is important if the behaviour continues.


• Spreading lies about or posting embarrassing photos or videos of someone on social media

• Sending hurtful, abusive or threatening messages, images or videos via messaging platforms

 • Impersonating someone and sending mean messages to others on their behalf or through fake accounts.

• Cyberbullying leaves a digital footprint - a record that can prove useful and provide evidence


When you experience cyberbullying you might start to feel ashamed, nervous, anxious and insecure about what people say or think about you. This can lead to withdrawing from friends and family, negative thoughts and self-talk, feeling guilty about things you did or did not do, or feeling that you are being judged negatively.


It can be helpful to collect evidence - text messages and screen shots of social media posts - to show what's been going on. Speaking to a trusted adult is the first step.


All friends joke around with each other. But if you feel hurt or think others are laughing at you instead of with you, then the joke has gone too far. If it continues even after you've asked the person to stop and you are still feeling upset about it, then this could be bullying.


Think twice before posting anything on digital platforms - it could be used to harm you later. Don't give out personal details such as your address, telephone number or the name of your school. Learn about the privacy settings on social media apps.

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Who had the opportunity to purchase Google in 1998 but turned it down?

In 1998, Google co-founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page, PhD students at Stanford University at the time, approached Yahoo! and suggested a partnership. Yahoo! declined supposedly because they didn't want to concentrate on search. Brin and Page went on to incorporate Google as a privately-held company on 4 September 1998. Yahoo! once again had the opportunity to purchase Google for $5bn in 2002. Although the price was high for Yahoo! in relation to its own value at the time, it would prove to be the last chance it had to acquire Google. It didn't. In January 2013, Google announced it had earned $50 billion in annual revenue for the year 2012.

Following the launch of Google X, the debut of Google Glass, and the unveiling of the company’s self-driving car project, the search giant turned its sights on the sciences. In particular, Page was interested in life extension. So the company, through its Google Ventures investment arm, created Calico, a company effectively aimed at curing death. It’s headed up by Bill Maris, the founding partner of Google Ventures, who recruited former Genentech CEO Art Levinson to be its chief executive.

It was yet another signal that Page’s Google was willing to put down huge sums of money toward problems far outside the realm of online search and mobile operating systems. Calico, however, has so far seemingly failed to yield any meaningful advancements in the life sciences, medicine, or biotechnology industries. It is unclear what, if anything, the company is focused on right now.

By the summer of 2015, Google was a remarkably different company than when Page had reassumed his CEO role four years prior. The company was involved in self-driving cars, wearable technology, the Nexus smartphone line, and numerous other product and experimental research efforts spanning artificial intelligence, cloud and quantum computing, and even fiber internet.

While Page and Brin receded from public view starting around 2015, they were reportedly quite active in Google’s famous weekly TGIY all-hands sessions, in which executives would answer questions from employees and address big-picture topics at the company and in the news. One such session, occurring just after Donald Trump was elected president in 2016, was two years later leaked to conservative news outlet Breitbart.

Credit :  The Verge

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What is Netiquette?

The word netiquette is a combination of 'net (from Internet) and 'etiquette. It means being polite and showing courtesy when posting your views in an online discussion respecting others' views.

Some rules to remember

For online discussions, each group has its own accepted rules of behaviour. Here are the basic rules to be followed when using the Internet.

  • Follow the rules about what is allowed and what is not allowed to be posted on any site
  • When sharing your opinion, state it clearly. Avoid using non-standard or colloquial speech in your language.
  • Do not use improper words or attack anyone personally. If you disagree with someone, express it with dignity.
  • In discussion forums, do not deviate from the topic.
  • Ignore others' mistakes, whether it's a spelling error, unintelligent question, or an unnecessarily long answer.
  • Follow the privacy rules of the site and consider copyright issues when posting on a site.
  • Respect other people's privacy.

Email etiquette

  • Use proper expressions to greet and introduce yourself.
  • Keep it short and to the point.
  • Use spell check, full sentence structure, and proper grammar.
  • Avoid using shortcuts for real words, emoticons, jargon, etc.
  • Be clear in your subject line. Subject line must match the message.
  • Do not use all capital letters, it reflects shouting. Similarly, typing in all small letters is considered informal.
  • Always end the email properly using words such as Thank you', 'Sincerely, etc.
  • Respond promptly.

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What are the terms of Internet?

We may often come across terms related to the Internet. Even though we may be familiar with the words themselves, we may not understand what some of those words mean. Here's a peek into a few such words

Webpage is a document connected to the World Wide Web. It can contain text, graphics, audio, and video files, or files that can be downloaded and hyperlinked to other pages or websites.

Website is a collection of webpages that are related to each other. They can contain multimedia. Websites can be owned by an individual, a business, or any organisation.

Homepage is the start page or the initial page of a website. Browser is a software program that assists in accessing the Internet. It helps send / receive emails, download/ upload data, audio and video files. Some of the popular browsers are Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, and Mozilla Firefox etc.

Search engine is a software program that searches the Internet for specified keywords and displays a list of websites that contain those keywords. Examples are Google, Yahoo, etc.

Keywords are the words used to search content on the Web. Downloading is making a personal copy of something you find on the Internet. When you download a file, a copy of the data is saved in your computer so that it can be accessed even when you are not connected to Internet. Usually we download audio and video files, data, and other software files.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is the protocol used by the World Wide Web. It defines how messages should be transmitted and what actions Web servers and browsers have to take for different commands.

HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol SECURED) means that the web page can hide your personal information and passwords. For example, a banks website. When you log into it, you will see https at the front of the page address.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is the language used for creating web pages. HTML keywords or tags instruct the web browser to display text and graphics in an orderly way. HTML tags are the hidden keywords in a web page. They define how the browser has to format and display the content.

IP (Internet Protocol) Address is a four-part or eight-part electronic serial number. It is used for tracking. Every computer, mobile phone, or device that accesses the Internet has a unique IP address.

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What are the ways to stay safe in the digital world?

While the internet opens the doors to a new world, it comes with its own share of crimes Cyber crime as we know it, are crimes that take place in the digital world using a computer. These range from cyber bullying where users use social media and other platforms to bully a victim to hacking and phishing which can lead users to lose a lot of money and data.

It is good to be aware and proactive and protect yourself from such crimes online. Here are five

1. Install antivirus software on your system – While free ones are good, try and buy the original full version software as it not just protects your system from viruses it also prompts you if a website has malware or suspicious quick ways to do so content

2. Keep your details personal- Never reveal your age, address email ID, phone number or credit card details in a public forum Also try not to upload personal pictures online.

3. Stay away from strangers as much as possible - Social media is a thriving ground for criminals, so refrain from adding people you do not know.

4. Keep privacy settings at maximum-Most social media platforms have privacy settings. So ensure you only allow your friends to view your profile.

5. Report abuse-If anything seems fishy on a social media platform or anywhere on the Internet, report abuse. Almost all websites let you report content or people who might seem fishy.

Above all this, inform the cyber cell about any kind of cyber crime that you, or a friend encounter.

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What is netiquette?

Netiquette is a combination of the words internet and etiquette. It refers to the rues to be observed online. It applies to several aspects of the internet such as email online chat web comments and social media. There is no official list of rules, but there are a few that are followed by a majority of communities online. Here are a few

Respect others privacy- Do not share other personal details and photos without their permission.

Watch what you say- Do not let personal problems and banter spill into the digital world. Sort out issues amicably in the real world than indulge in inflammatory and offensive comments online.

Think before you post-Whether it is a meme or something you wish to say think twice before you post it online as everything you post is for the world to see and leaves a digital footprint

Think before reposting-just because someone has shared something on their profile, you need not repost it. Always check the legitimacy of the information before you post it Social media is filled with fake news.

Be a sport-Don't say anything inflammatory while playing multiplayer games online. Be a sport and accept defeat gracefully.

No ALL CAPS, please-Typing a sentence is ALL CAPS means you are shouting or yelling at someone. So whether it is social medias or an email remember never to use ALL CAPS.

Don't spam-Do you like it if someone spams you with forwards or links to pages that they want you to like and support? No? The same applies to others as well Do not spam users.

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What are the pros and cons of internet?

The Internet is a verse in itself. As technology has progressed over the years, more and more people have been accessing the Internet. Earlier, it used to be only adults who browsed the net, but today children as young as five have access to the World Wide Web.

Content on the Web too has been evolving to keep pace with current trends; not to mention the boom of social networking platforms that has altered people's perception of the Internet.

While the Internet has a plethora of information to offer, has it had an effect on our social, physical and psychological well-being?

Pro: The Internet and video-calling have been a saviour for what would otherwise be close-to-nil social life for individuals, especially children. It has connected people from all over the world.

Con: Children today tend to lead a digital life. They have become far too comfortable with the features that video calling has to offer, that they do not even know their own neighbours. Not just now, but even during pre-pandemic times their use of the Internet was quite high.

Pro: One of the many things the Internet has given access to is free health and fitness sites and apps. Individuals who are shy to join a gym or simply can't afford it, can still learn exercises from professionals and be at the peak of health.

Con: People have become so addicted to the Web that screen time has increased significantly over the years. This addiction has also prevented people from stepping out, meeting others or simply going for a walk and play.

Pro: Recently there has been an emphasis on mental health and psychological well-being. The Internet has seen a rise in content such as meditation videos and websites that help people unwind and recharge right at home.

Con: Hate on social media is not new. It is all over, with trolls attacking individuals. This can leave a serious dent in the mental health of individuals, especially children who are still understanding and exploring the world around them.

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What is Google Doodle?

Google search has been a part of all of our lives at least once. It is still the most widely used search engine that has answers to pretty much all the questions one can come up with. But every once in a while, the iconic Google logo looks different, based on the occasion. Do you know why and what it is called?

Doodle time

It's called the Google Doodle. Doodles are surprising and fun changes made to the Google logo to mark various occasions such as festivals and sporting events, and to celebrate the lives of famous people.

The concept of the doodle was born even before Google was incorporated. In 1998, Google founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin played around with the corporate logo of the company to indicate their attendance at a festival in Nevada desert, the United States. They doodled a stick figure on the second 'o' from the Google logo to give people a message that the founders were 'out of office. And thus was born the idea of decorating the company logo to celebrate events.

In 2000, Dennis Hwang, who was then an intern with the company, was asked to create a doodle for Bastille Day. The doodle was so well received within the company and by Google users that Dennis was appointed Google's chief doodler and over time, a team was formed to create, illustrate and upload Google Doodles.

The company has created over 4.000 doodles till date.

You can be a doodler too!

If you have an idea for a doodle, or have any doodle to share, you can mail them to doodleproposals@google.com

The team will go through the proposals and get back to you if your idea is shortlisted.

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What is Y-Break?

The Union Ayush Ministry launched a mobile app called "Y-Break" on September 1, 2021. What is this app for?

"Y-Break" is nothing but a Yoga-Break app, a five-minute yoga protocol designed to help working professionals remain fit and healthy, and thereby increase their productivity. The aim of the app is to help them de-stress, refresh, and refocus through simple yoga asanas that can be done in five minutes.

Ever since the pandemic broke out in 2019, it has had a great impact on people, especially office-goers. We often hear of people experiencing stress and anxiety besides physical problems on account of their sedentary occupation. It is said that the Y-Break app has been developed keeping in view the working population as it is expected to give them some relief at the workplace.

How is it beneficial?

The Y-Break app intends to introduce people at the workplace to yoga. It promotes the idea of a five-minute break from work to practise yoga and feel refreshed. The Yoga-Break protocol consists of asanas, pranayama, and dhyana, and can integrate seamlessly with people's work routine.

Simple stretching exercises such as Tadasana, Urdhva Hastottanasana, Uttana Mandukasana, Kati Chakrasana. Ardha Chakrasana, and Bhramari Pranayama among others make up the protocol. Besides enabling people to perform stretching exercises and meditation with ease anywhere in just five minutes, the app will help create awareness about different yogic practices.

The mobile app was launched by Ayush Minister Sarbananda Sonowal as part of the 'Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav celebrations organised by the Government to commemorate the 75th year of India's Independence. The launch of the app has been termed as one of the significant initiatives of the Ministry of AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homoeopathy).

Who developed the app?

The Morarji Desai National Institute of Yoga (MDNY), an autonomous body under the Ayush Ministry, has developed the Y-Break app, which is available on both iOS and Android platforms.

A pilot study to find the efficacy of the yoga protocol was undertaken in six major metro cities on a sample size of 717 participants aged 18 and above. Fifteen-day trials involving participants from private and government bodies were conducted by the MDNIY in collaboration with six leading yoga institutes of the country.

The participants were selected taking into consideration the various problems they were suffering from such as lower back pain, headache, anger, and stress. The study showed positive outcomes. It was also recognised that yoga break at the workplace enables one to relax completely.

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Where is coding used?

Computers and their applications have evolved quite a lot since the invention of the first-ever programmable computers in the 1940s. Initially, computers were extensively used in wars to break cryptic messages, or calculate artillery projectiles, or communicate over long distances. However, with time, the use of computers and their applications started increasing, and in this article, we will explore some modem uses of programming in our day-to-day life. Some of the real-world applications of coding are

Games and gaming consoles:

Gaming consoles have been the dream of many teenagers, but how do these consoles function? All instructions given by gamers through keyboards or consoles are translated into actions with the help of code.

Building websites and apps:

Social media platforms, search engines, audio streaming platforms, and many more websites and apps we are hooked to are a result of many programmers coming together to write code such that these applications and websites can do what they are supposed to.

Traffic management:

Be it managing traffic on the road or outer space, coding allows humans to actively manage traffic movement, eliminating the need for humans to manually manage it.

Facial recognition and biometrics:

Have you ever wondered how our smartphones can instantly recognise us and unlock our devices? Thanks to the feat of programming, computers can monitor millions of data points to verify the rightful owner(s) almost instantly.

Self-driving cars:

Who is driving the car when the human isn't? How does the computer know when to drive, how to drive, and where to go? With the extensive use of technologies such as Al (artificial intelligence) and ML (machine learning), today it is possible for cars to self-drive.

Banking and insurance:

How do banking systems know, about our bank balances and interests? With computers, and programming into the picture, banking institutions can access data in real-time, eliminating redundancies and errors.

Stock markets:

With trillions of dollars being traded every day, it becomes vital to ensure that the money reaches the right people at the right time, and all of this is managed through computer programs.

Powering e-commerce sites:

How come when you place an order for your favourite gadget, it usually reaches you and not someone else? It is with the help of code and programs that millions of products are safely shipped to the right recipients.

Electronic devices:

From refrigerators and television to earphones, electronic devices are hard-coded to perform certain actions.

If the computer is a physical entity, then the program running it is its soul.

The world of computing has undergone a rapid evolution, and today humanity enjoys the power of computing and programming in almost all aspects of life. Which is why today coding is seen as one of the most desirable skills.

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What are agony aunt columns?

Do you have a friend you always turn to for advice and who gives you a patient car? And does sharing your concerns - sometimes in the strictest confidence- make you feel better? However, sometimes we are too afraid to seek even our friend's help. That's why newspapers and magazines offer help through advice columns. But did you know that these columns, known as agony aunt columns, started more than 200 years ago? Or that the first agony aunts were actually uncles?

In 1691, an English publisher named John Dunton launched the "Athenian Gazette". The periodical carried a column readers turned to for advice. Often the readers sent in their queries without revealing their identity.

The column was in the question-and-answer format. Questions came in from readers on subjects that ranged from religion to philosophy to personal lives. They were answered by Dunton and some of his friends.

How they evolved

Such columns soared in popularity in the 1900s. They struck a chord with the readers. Newspapers and magazines used them to interact with their readers.

The authors of these columns were not necessarily experts, but anyone with the gift of the gab especially those who could come up with witty and humorous responses.

Often the authors themselves kept their identity hidden. Sometimes the columns were written by a team of authors under a common pseudonym. The agony aunts doled out advice on a wide range of topics from mental health and relationships to homemaking and socialising. Readers found these columns comforting, as they echoed their own sentiments and concerns. Some of the popular advice columns of the 1900s were "Dear Abby", "Dear Prudence", and "Ask Polly".

In India, the '80s and the '90s were considered the golden age of advice columns and many celebrities and socialites played agony aunts. Television actress Priya Tendulkar ran the "Priya's Helpline" in The Indian Express and the column was known to receive 500 letters per week. Theatre director Pearl Padamsee's agony aunt column for Femina, and socialite Bina Ramani's "Very Personal" column for the Asian Age were equally popular.

While most of these columns were light-hearted, some of them tackled serious issues and were handled by experts such as medical doctors and psychologists.

New avatar

Advice columns continue to run even today albeit in a new avatar. They are no longer restricted to the print medium alone. Television shows and radio channels too have segments dedicated to answering questions from readers on various topics. There are also many agony aunt podcasts available online. For instance, Slate magazine has revived the "Dear Prudence" columns in the form of podcasts.

Social media too has not been left behind. Some websites and apps offer advice in real-time to users.

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Facebook's new privacy changes for Instagram's teen users

Facebook is taking steps to make Instagram, the photo- and video-sharing app with more than 1 billion users, safer for teens. They include automatically defaulting teen users under 16 into private accounts, making it harder for suspicious adult accounts to find them, limiting the options advertisers have to reach younger viewers with ads, and using AI to detect users' ages. "We think private accounts are the right choice for young people, but we recognize some young creators might want to have public accounts to build a following," Instagram said in a blog post. "We want to strike the right balance of giving young people all the things they love about Instagram while also keeping them safe." However, critics say that even though Instagram appears to be addressing online predation, underage users, and advertising standards for teens, they also must be mindful of other issues including cyberbullying, self-harm and exposure to misinformation and adult content.

Giving users options has been frowned upon for years. The logic was simple enough: Most people won't change their default settings anyway, so the onus is on the product to get things right automatically. More algorithms, fewer settings. Less friction! Now, people are being given more choices and more tools with which to decide their experience.

Facebook acknowledged it's still trying to figure out the right way to verify people's age — because there's not much to stop new ones from just, you know, lying — and often, by the time someone reports a rule break, it's already too late. The only option for the platforms is to be more proactive and more careful. Doing that with young users is an obvious choice, because the stakes are so high and the relative business hit fairly low, but it'll be equally important and much harder to make the same decisions for the broader user base.

But whether it was Twitter serving the "Are you sure you want to share this article you haven't read?" pop-up or some of these privacy-focused tools that let people choose who can reach or read them, the focus has clearly shifted away from building the One Perfect System to letting users build it for themselves. At the scale at which these companies operate, that's the only way it's ever going to work.

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What is special about Brickit app?

Got a pile of Lego bricks lying around at home and have no idea what to build? Brickit uses an AI powered camera to rapidly scan the bricks and suggest things you can make. Spread out your Lego bricks, and let the app scan them. Seconds later, the app delivers options you can construct, without worrying about what to look for from the large number of bricks. Choose the project you want to build and follow the step-by-step building process on the app. The app doesn't just mark the bricks you need for a particular project but also tells you where they are in the pile of Lego pieces! You can share your project with other users on the app. Brickit is available for iOS for now, and will be available for Android soon.

For many of us however, Lego is a big box containing a jumble of random bricks, each belonging to structures that were dismantled long ago. With the instruction manuals long gone, building more than a simple house feels like a daunting prospect. But what if you could scan all of the random pieces and be told exactly what you could make with them? This was the dream for the team behind Brickit, a new app that is inspiring kids and adults alike to build new creations from their old Lego. The process is very straightforward: simply lay out your bricks, point your camera at the unruly heap, and let Brickit do all the work for you. It will scan each individual piece, identify it, and then figure out which of Lego’s many sets you can build from what you have on hand. It will even tell you which bricks are missing.

As well as identifying the various bits in the pile, it will also provide you with illustrations of them in a similar vein to the official Lego instruction manuals. If you’re unsure of where to find these pieces in the undoubtedly huge pile, fear not because the app will then highlight each one in the original photo. As a result, building the proposed sets – assuming you have the correct bricks – becomes a relatively quick and easy task. Though, if you don’t have the right pieces to make any of the sets, you can attempt them anyway, substituting missing pieces for others that you have in your arsenal. This stage might require a bit of thinking outside the box but, as Lego’s original tagline goes: “Just Imagine…”

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What are zero-click attacks?

Zero-click attacks, as the name suggests, are hacks that do not require any action from the target user in other words, these are attacks that can be executed without the victim carrying out any voluntary action There has been a lot of talk about zero-click attacks recently as a spyware found to be at the heart of a recent hack that targeted thousands of people operated in this manner.

Traditionally, hackers lay out a trap for the potential victim in the form of something like a phishing attack. Here, the victim is tricked into downloading an attachment or clicking on a link that is embedded with malware and initiates the Track

While these attacks require some form of action from the one being attacked - that eventually compromises the system, what makes zero-click attacks more dangerous is the fact that they bypass all these

Zero-day vulnerabilities

This means that zero-click attacks are any cyber attacks that exploit a flaw in the device and work their way into the system. Instead of exploiting human error, these identify potential zero-day vulnerabilities in the Operating System (OS)-flaws that haven't been identified, and hence are yet to be patched. Any device, be it iOS or Android. Windows or macOS, Can therefore fall prey to such an attack.

The recent attack that made news employed a powerful spyware called Pegasus. Once this spyware entered any device, it was able to install a module that enabled it to track call logs, read mails, messages, browsing history, calendars, and even track location data, before sending it to the attacker. Apart from these abilities, the spyware could also hide intelligently and self-destruct if necessary.

Hard to detect and trace

The fact that these zero-click attacks are currently both hard to detect and near impossible to trace poses serious difficulties as to how we surmount them. The only thing that we can do at the moment is to have the software and apps updated on our devices at all times, and also use only the official marketplaces to install any software.

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PUBG Mobile teams up with Tesla to bring vehicle skins to game

PUBG Mobile has joined hands with electric car maker Tesla to bring Tesla-specific elements to the game. These will likely include the cars of the company that will be soon available in PUBG Mobile via the game's skins for popular cars like the Model S, the Model X, the Model Y and the Model 3. Battlegrounds Mobile India is the Indianised version of PUBG Mobile India which was banned in September 2020 due to privacy concerns. Battlegrounds Mobile India players will have to wait longer to get a chance to use these skins as the game is still in beta phase.

Assuming that BGMI is more or less a rebadged version of the PUBG, the developers could introduce Tesla-related in-game elements. This is a pure guess considering both games are fairly similar and are under Krafton’s roof. Krafton is yet to make an official announcement around the introduction of Tesla cars in BGMI at the time of writing this.

In related news, BGMI is available for early access download on the Google Play Store. Players who pre-register can download the game on Android smartphones.

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