Is Venus is considered as the Earth’s twin?


Venus – Earth’s “Twin”



Venus is nearly the same size as Earth, so it is often called Earth’s “twin”. But it is nothing at all likes our world. Venus’s atmosphere is full of poisonous gases. Its clouds contain a chemical strong enough to dissolve metal! And the clouds on Venus are so thick that cameras can’t see the planet’s surface.



High in Venus’s atmosphere, powerful windstorms are raging. Venus’s windstorms are much worse than storms on Earth. Lightning flashes in the sky as often as 20 times a minute.



Venus is the second closest planet to the sun. This makes it extremely hot and dry. As seen from Earth, Venus is brighter than all the other planets and stars. It is so bright that it can sometimes be seen in the daytime! A year on Venus is as long as 225 Earth days. Like Mercury, Venus has no moons.



Scientists once thought the planet Venus would be much like Earth, but warmer. They were wrong. Venus is extremely hot, and its atmosphere is very heavy. Scientists have used many space probes to study Venus, including the Soviet Vanera probes, the U.S. Mariner and Magellan probes, and a European Space Agency probe named Venus Express.



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What is the Earth?


Earth



Earth is a watery planet. More than two-thirds of Earth’s surface is covered with water. That’s good for all the living things in our world because animals and plants need water to live. Animals and plants live almost everywhere on Earth.



Earth is the third planet from the sun, and air surrounds it. The air is made up of gases, such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. These gases are needed for almost all living things to survive. Human beings breathe in oxygen. Plants need carbon dioxide.



If you look at a globe, you will find the North Pole on one end and the South Pole on the other. Earth looks like a ball, but it is actually a little flatter at the North and South poles.



Earth travels 958 million kilometres on its journey around the sun. It takes about 365 days for Earth to orbit the sun once. That’s why there are about 365 days in an Earth year.



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What is the Mercury like?


Mercury, closest to the Sun



Mercury is the nearest planet to the sun. It is a bare rocky ball covered with craters, much like our moon. Also like our moon, Mercury has broad, flat plains and steep cliffs.



Mercury spins and has day and night, but it spins very slowly. One day on Mercury takes 59 Earth days.



Mercury is very hot during the long day. Temperatures there reach higher than 400 °C. At night, temperatures take a big dip, sometimes to as low as -170 °C!



Mercury has a bigger temperature change than any other planet. This is because it is closest to the sun, and because it has very long days.



Mercury is a small planet. It could fit inside Earth two and one-half times. There are hardly any gases surrounding Mercury, so it has very little atmosphere.



Mercury is much closer to the sun than Earth is. So if you were standing on Mercury, the sun would appear much bigger and brighter.



Of course, you could not stand on Mercury in the middle of the day or night because it is either too hot or too cold. But scientists have explored it with a spacecraft that had no people on board.



The U.S. Mariner 10 was the first spacecraft to reach Mercury. Mariner 10 was a space probe. A space probe is a machine that explores space and sends information and pictures back to Earth. Astronauts do not travel in space probes. Scientists on Earth use computers to control space probes. On March 29, 1974, Mariner 10 flew within 740 kilometres of Mercury. It swept past the planet again on Sept. 24, 1974, and on March 16, 1975. During these flights, the probe took photographs of parts of Mercury’s surface. The U.S. space probe Messenger was launched in 2004 and began orbiting Mercury in 2011. Messenger became the first space probe to orbit Mercury. Messenger began to map the planet’s surface and study its magnetic field.




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Do any other planets have moons?


Moons of other planets



Earth is not the only planet that has a moon. Other planets do, too!



Mars has two little moons that are just lumpy chunks of rock. The largest of these, Phobos, is only about 27 kilometres wide. Mars’s other moon, Deimos, is about 15 kilometres wide.



Just how big are Mars’s moons? On a map, find the Cape Cod Canal, which separates Cape Cod from the rest of Massachusetts, U.S.A. The canal is 27 kilometres long. So Mars’s larger moon, Phobos, is as wide as the canal is long! Deimos is a little more than half that size.



Jupiter has at least 63 moons. A few of the smallest moons are smaller than some of the mountains on Earth. But the biggest, Ganymede, is bigger than the planet Mercury.



Saturn has at least 62 moons. Like Jupiter’s moons, Saturn’s are very different in size. Some are smaller than 10 kilometres in width. Saturn’s biggest moon, Titan, is bigger than Earth’s moon. Titan is also bigger than Mercury.



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Will you add some facts about Planet Earth in my knowledge Bank?


EARTH



Our own planet, Earth, is the largest of the four inner planets. Third in order of from the Sun, 71% of its surface is taken up by oceans. Water is also present as droplets or ice particles that make up the clouds, as vapour in the atmosphere and as ice in polar areas or on high mountains.



Liquid water is essential for the existence of life on Earth, the only body in the Solar System where life is known to be present. Earth’s distance from the Sun - neither too close nor too far - produces exactly the right temperature range. The atmosphere traps enough of the Sun’s energy to avoid temperature extremes. It also screens the harmful rays of the Sun and acts as a shield against bombardment by meteoroids.



Earth’s magnetic field is generated by electrical currents produced by the swirling motion of the liquid inner core. The magnetic field protects Earth from the solar wind.



Earth’s outer shell, made up of the rocky crust and partly-molten upper mantle, is divided into about 15 separate pieces, called tectonic plates. Volcanoes and earthquakes occur where plate edges meet.



            When Earth lies directly between the Sun and the Moon it casts its shadow on the Moon. This is called a lunar eclipse.



            In contrast to the barren landscapes of the other planets, much of Earth’s is covered by vegetation, including forest, scrub and grassland. Different climates determine the types of plants and animals that live in different places. Large areas show the important influence of humans: for example, farmland, roads and cities. Land areas are continually sculpted by the weather and moving water or ice.




Picture Credit : Google