Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation that comes from the sun. Humans have found use for this radiation in industry and dentistry. However, too much exposure to UV rays harms not just humans but can alter our environment because it can inhibit growth in green plants. The ozone layer that protects us from harmful UV rays has faced depletion, primarily due to certain types of chemicals we humans manufacture.

Our natural source of UV radiation:

The sun

Some artificial sources of UV radiation include:

  • Tanning beds
  • Mercury vapor lighting (often found in stadiums and school gyms)
  • Some halogen, fluorescent, and incandescent lights
  • Some types of lasers

UV radiation is classified into three primary types: ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB), and ultraviolet C (UVC), based on their wavelengths. Almost all of the UV radiation that reaches earth is UVA though some UVB radiation reaches earth. UVA and UVB radiation can both affect health but UVA penetrates deeper into the skin and is more constant throughout the year.


The production of vitamin D, a vitamin essential to human health.

Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium and phosphorus from food and assists bone development. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends 5 to 15 minutes of sun exposure 2 to 3 times a week.


Sunburn is a sign of short-term overexposure, while premature aging and skin cancer are side effects of prolonged UV exposure.
UV exposure increases the risk of potentially blinding eye diseases, if eye protection is not used.
Overexposure to UV radiation can lead to serious health issues, including cancer.

Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United States. The two most common types of skin cancer are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. Typically, they form on the head, face, neck, hands, and arms because these body parts are the most exposed to UV radiation. Most cases of melanoma, the deadliest kind of skin cancer, are caused by exposure to UV radiation.

Anyone can have harmful health effects from UV radiation, but the risks increase in people who:

Spend a lot of time in the sun or have been sunburned.
Have light-color skin, hair, and eyes.
Take some types of oral and topical medicines, such as antibiotics, birth control pills, and benzoyl peroxide products, as well as some cosmetics, may increase skin and eye sensitivity to UV in all skin types.
Have a family member with skin cancer.
Are over age 50.

To protect yourself from UV radiation:

Stay in the shade, especially during midday hours.
Wear clothes that cover your arms and legs.
Consider options to protect your children.
Wear a wide brim hat to shade your face, head, ears, and neck.
Wear wraparound sunglasses that block both UVA and UVB rays.
Use sunscreen with sun protection factor (SPF) 15 or higher, for both UVA and UVB protection.
Avoid indoor tanning. Indoor tanning is particularly dangerous for younger users; people who begin indoor tanning during adolescence or early adulthood have a higher risk of developing melanoma.

Credt : National centre for Environment health   

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As our planet warms, oceans across the globe absorb a large portion of the heat generated. In the process, the water expands, resulting in universal sea-level rise. In addition, the rise is also caused by the melting of glaciers and icebergs. Usually such melting during warmer months and freezing during colder months is a natural phenomenon. However, with global warming, there's more of the former than the latter, leading to alarming sea-level rise, threatening to submerge several cities within just a few decades.

Why does sea level change?

Causes sea level to rise because water expands as it warms up; melting of the world’s ice sheets. A large ice mass, which flows over hills and valleys and occupies a large portion of a continent. The world has only three major ice sheets today (Greenland, West Antarctica, and East Antarctica).

 In Greenland and Antarctica;  melting of smaller around the world; and decrease in the amount of water held on land, for example, in groundwater beneath the land and in reservoirs above the land. Ocean warming accounts for around half of the observed change in sea level (this is often called “thermal expansion”), with the melting of thousands of small glaciers accounting for the other half of the increase in sea level. Since the 1800s, the melting ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland have contributed relatively little to sea level change. But, these ice sheets are starting to melt faster due to global warming and may push sea level up much more in the future.

How much could sea level rise?

Because of global warming, the thermal expansion of the ocean and glacier melting will continue to play a role in the rise of sea level in the future . If all of the planet’s remaining as small glaciers were to melt, sea level would rise about 50 cm. The amount that thermal expansion can raise sea level in the future will depend on the continued warming of sea water. The largest possible contribution to sea level rise in the future comes from the world’s large ice sheets in Greenland, West Antarctica, and East Antarctica. If these ice sheets melted completely, the level of the oceans would rise about 7 m from the Greenland ice sheet, 5 m from the West Antarctic ice sheet, and 53 m from the East Antarctic ice sheet. This is why many glaciologists (scientists who study ice) focus on how Greenland and Antarctica are changing because of global warming.

How will sea level rise affect the countries of the world?

The effect of ice sheet melting on sea level is different across the world.

So, when the sea level rises, people will be affected in different ways, depending on where they live. The UK is used to occasionally dealing with rising sea level for short periods of time, particularly when there are storms at the same time as when the tides higher than usual. If the IPCC predictions are correct, we must consider the possible increase in sea level on top of natural tidal surges. This will cause dangerously high tides to occur more often in the coming decades, and these future tides might be more destructive than we are used to.

In farming regions near the coast, seawater flooding on land can contaminate the soils with salt, making them less able to support the growth of crops. The salty water may also get into underground stores of fresh water (known as groundwater), which is the source of important drinking water and also for farmers to grow crops.

In coastal cities, sea level rise will cause more flooding to houses, businesses, and while it may seem sensible to consider moving cities away from harmful floods, especially as we know it will likely happen in the future, our cities cost so much to develop that we are more likely to simply try to protect them from rising sea levels. A vision of our cities near the sea involves them with walls facing the ocean several meters high, with the street level of the cities themselves being below the level of the ever rising sea.

Credit : Frontiers for young mind 

Picture Credit : Google 


Permafrost is permanently frozen ground comprising soil, rocks, and sand, and often spans the Arctic regions. Found both on land and below the ocean floor, it covers vast expanses, and is a habitat for several animals and plants. Melting permafrost is a concern because it releases vast amounts of trapped greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.

What is Permafrost Made Of?

Permafrost is made of a combination of soil, rocks and sand that are held together by ice. The soil and ice in permafrost stay frozen all year long.

Near the surface, permafrost soils also contain large quantities of organic carbon—a material leftover from dead plants that couldn’t decompose, or rot away, due to the cold. Lower permafrost layers contain soils made mostly of minerals.

A layer of soil on top of permafrost does not stay frozen all year. This layer, called the active layer, thaws during the warm summer months and freezes again in the fall. In colder regions, the ground rarely thaws—even in the summer. There, the active layer is very thin—only 4 to 6 inches (10 to 15 centimeters). In warmer permafrost regions, the active layer can be several meters thick.

How Does Climate Change Affect Permafrost?

As Earth’s climate warms, the permafrost is thawing. That means the ice inside the permafrost melts, leaving behind water and soil.

Thawing permafrost can have dramatic impacts on our planet and the things living on it. For example:

  1. Many northern villages are built on permafrost. When permafrost is frozen, it’s harder than concrete. However, thawing permafrost can destroy houses, roads and other infrastructure.
  2. When permafrost is frozen, plant material in the soil—called organic carbon—can’t decompose, or rot away. As permafrost thaws, microbes begin decomposing this material. This process releases greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere.
  3. When permafrost thaws, so do ancient bacteria and viruses in the ice and soil. These newly-unfrozen microbes could make humans and animals very sick. Scientists have discovered microbes more than 400,000 years old in thawed permafrost.
  4. Because of these dangers, scientists are closely monitoring Earth’s permafrost. Scientists use satellite observations from space to look at large regions of permafrost that would be difficult to study from the ground.

Credit : Climate kids

Picture Credit : Google 


About 15 to 35 km above the Earth's surface is gas called Ozone that surrounds the planet. This layer shields the Earth from the UV radiation from the sun However, pollution has caused this layer to thin exposing life on the planet to harmful radiation. The Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer (which was adopted on September 15, 1987) is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer from depletion by phasing out the production of a number of substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion.

How is Ozone created?

When the sun's rays split oxygen molecules into single atoms, Ozone is created in the atmosphere. These single atoms combine with nearby oxygen to form a three-oxygen molecule — Ozone.

 Who discovered the Ozone Layer?

 The Ozone Layer was discovered by the French physicists Charles Fabry and Henri Buisson in 1913.

 Why is Ozone Layer important?

 Ozone protects the Earth from harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays from the Sun. Without the Ozone layer in the atmosphere, life on Earth would be very difficult. Plants cannot live and grow in heavy ultraviolet radiation, nor can the planktons that serve as food for most of the ocean life. With a weakening of the Ozone Layer shield, humans would be more susceptible to skin cancer, cataracts and impaired immune systems.

 Is Ozone harmful?

 Ozone can both protect and harm the Earth — it all depends on where it resides. For instance, if Ozone is present in the stratosphere of the atmosphere, it will act as a shield. However, if it is in the troposphere (about 10 km from the Earth's surface), Ozone is harmful. It is a pollutant that can cause damage to lung tissues and plants. Hence, an upset in the ozone balance can have serious consequences.

Disruption of Ozone Balance in the atmosphere

 Since the 1970s scientists have observed human activities to be disrupting the ozone balance. Production of chlorine-containing chemicals, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), have added to depletion of the Ozone Layer.

 What is 'Ozone Layer depletion'?

Chemicals containing chlorine and bromine atoms are released in the atmosphere through human activities. These chemicals combine with certain weather conditions to cause reactions in the Ozone Layer, leading to ozone molecules getting destroyed. Depletion of the Ozone Layer occurs globally, but the severe depletion of the Ozone Layer over the Antarctic is often referred to as the 'Ozone Hole'. Increased depletion has recently started occurring over the Arctic as well.

Credit : Business standard

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Our atmosphere is made up of 78% nitrogen. This element is essential for all living beings but we cannot directly take the nitrogen from the environment. We must absorb it through our food. The nitrogen cycle follows the circulation of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil, to animals and back. Nitrogen in the atmosphere falls to the earth through snow and rain. Once in the soil, the nitrogen combines with the hydrogen on the roots of the plants to form ammonia. This process is called Nitrogen fixation. Additional bacteria further combine this ammonia with oxygen in a process called Nitrification. At this point, the nitrogen is in a form called nitrite, which is further converted into nitrate by the bacteria. Plants can absorb nitrogen in this state through a process called assimilation and the rest is utilised by the bacteria. The remainder is released back into the atmosphere through the process of denitrification.

Nitrogen Cycle Explained – Stages of Nitrogen Cycle

Process of the Nitrogen Cycle consists of the following steps – Nitrogen fixation, Nitrification, Assimilation, Ammonification and Denitrification. These processes take place in several stages and are explained below:

Nitrogen Fixation Process

It is the initial step of the nitrogen cycle. Here, Atmospheric nitrogen (N2) which is primarily available in an inert form, is converted into the usable form -ammonia (NH3).

During the process of Nitrogen fixation, the inert form of nitrogen gas is deposited into soils from the atmosphere and surface waters, mainly through precipitation.

The entire process of Nitrogen fixation is completed by symbiotic bacteria, which are known as Diazotrophs. Azotobacter and Rhizobium also have a major role in this process. These bacteria consist of a nitrogenase enzyme, which has the capability to combine gaseous nitrogen with hydrogen to form ammonia.

Nitrogen fixation can occur either by atmospheric fixation- which involves lightening, or industrial fixation by manufacturing ammonia under high temperature and pressure conditions. This can also be fixed through man-made processes, primarily industrial processes that create ammonia and nitrogen-rich fertilisers.


Primary producers – plants take in the nitrogen compounds from the soil with the help of their roots, which are available in the form of ammonia, nitrite ions, nitrate ions or ammonium ions and are used in the formation of the plant and animal proteins. This way, it enters the food web when the primary consumers eat the plants.


When plants or animals die, the nitrogen present in the organic matter is released back into the soil. The decomposers, namely bacteria or fungi present in the soil, convert the organic matter back into ammonium. This process of decomposition produces ammonia, which is further used for other biological processes.


Denitrification is the process in which the nitrogen compounds make their way back into the atmosphere by converting nitrate (NO3-)  into gaseous nitrogen (N). This process of the nitrogen cycle is the final stage and occurs in the absence of oxygen. Denitrification is carried out by the denitrifying bacterial species- Clostridium and Pseudomonas, which will process nitrate to gain oxygen and gives out free nitrogen gas as a byproduct.


Nitrogen is abundant in the atmosphere, but it is unusable to plants or animals unless it is converted into nitrogen compounds.

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria play a crucial role in fixing atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen compounds that can be used by plants.

The plants absorb the usable nitrogen compounds from the soil through their roots. Then, these nitrogen compounds are used for the production of proteins and other compounds in the plant cell.

Animals assimilate nitrogen by consuming these plants or other animals that contain nitrogen. Humans consume proteins from these plants and animals. The nitrogen then assimilates into our body system.

During the final stages of the nitrogen cycle, bacteria and fungi help decompose organic matter, where the nitrogenous compounds get dissolved into the soil which is again used by the plants.

Some bacteria then convert these nitrogenous compounds in the soil and turn it into nitrogen gas. Eventually, it goes back to the atmosphere.

These sets of processes repeat continuously and thus maintain the percentage of nitrogen in the atmosphere.

Credit : BYJU’S 

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