He told me that he hates me

My friend is studying in another class of the same school as I am. I teased him by spreading rumours for fun. Normally, he doesn’t take it seriously, but this time he did. I said sorry but he is not responding, and not listening to me. I gave him a letter to know if he wants to be my friend or not but he tore it up. He spoke to me using foul language and called me names. I was heart-broken when he told me that he hates me.

Spreading rumours means spreading false stories or lies about someone. And it can have very serious effects when you cross a limit, as you have seen with your friend. Unfortunately, you seem to be feeling more heart-broken that he hates you, rather than remorseful that you hurt him. Perhaps you thought it was not such a big deal, but for your friend it certainly was.

If you focus more on your friend’s feelings, you will realize that even though you said sorry, you have not really shown him that you truly feel bad about what you did. Giving him a letter asking him to ‘decide’ whether he wanted to be your friend is a ‘thinking’ thing that is pushing his feelings of hurt aside. It would have been better to have just apologized and shown him that you care about him and that you are truly sorry for your actions.

At present, it is best to leave your friend alone and respect his decision about whether he wants to be your friend or not. Going forward, it would be nice if you were more sensitive to and considerate about others’ feelings. Maintain healthy boundaries and you will enjoy mutual respect and love.


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He treats me as his sister

I have a crush on a boy who is my neighbour. I know him since childhood as we used to play together with other children, too. As time passed we stopped talking, and I don’t know why, but I still like him. Now he has gone away for his studies and I desperately wait for him. I’ve cried for him a lot. I really want him but he treats me as his sister. This is affecting my performance in studies. I tried a lot to forget him since two years but I am unable to do so.

You seem to have a crush on a phantom from the past and not a real person of today. While this is causing you so much emotional pain, you are chasing an idea of a person, and not the person himself. It is as though you are walking forward with your head facing backwards!

Imagine if you meet a new friend and she or he finds that there is only a love-struck zombie in you, then she or he won’t be able to connect with you or exchange ideas and views, share thoughts, feelings and experiences, listen to you and be listened to, and have fun together. The person will be so disappointed.

Wake up and see that there is much to look forward to. Your family and existing friends would like your full attention. Once you’re done with school, there is college to go to; perhaps get-together and weddings to attend and new people to meet…the future can be quite exciting…if you let it!

So, let the ghost of this boy go. Come back to the ‘present’…you’re missing out so much!


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I want to take up a career in chemical engineering

I am a student of Class X. I want to take up a career in chemical engineering. What study plans should I opt for? I want to make a career in this field abroad. Which countries will provide better opportunities?

Chemical engineers design equipment and develop processes for the manufacture of chemicals in chemical plants. They plan and test methods of manufacturing products and supervise their production. A graduate degree in a respective field, i.e., Bachelor in Engineering (B.E.)/Bachelor in Technology (Bach.) courses is the minimum requirement to enter this field. Admission to these four-year courses in different colleges/ institutes is made on the basis of admission tests for which the basic eligibility is 10+2 with physics, chemistry and mathematics. These tests evaluate students' aptitude, ability, knowledge and application of the subjects.


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I have aspirations to become a chartered accountant

I am presently studying in Class IX and have aspirations to become a chartered accountant. I am confused about the courses to take after the Class X board exams. Can you help me with the courses I can go for?

Eligibility for becoming a chartered accountant is 10+2 in any stream. So you can take any combination of subjects in Class 11. The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) is the only institute to provide training in this field in India. The Institute imparts compulsory postal tuition for its various exams. Regional Councils and some of the Chapters of the Institute also conduct oral coaching classes for the benefit of the students.


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Companies use all forms of media to advertise their products and services. advertising began simply as a way of telling people about a product, but it is now much more sophisticated. It is used to present the image of a company in a certain way and also to target a particular audience that the company feels it can attract. In this way, the company associates itself with a certain lifestyle. Advertising is a huge business, with large companies investing huge sums of money in anything from sports sponsorship to putting their logo on the side of a milk carton.

Companies use advertisements as part of a marketing program to increase sales of their products and services. Advertising plays a different role at different stages of the marketing process -- helping to raise awareness of a product or service, generating leads for a sales force or selling directly. Companies with retail outlets use advertising to make consumers aware of product availability and increase sales through the outlets.


Companies use advertising to make customers and prospects aware of the features and benefits of their products. If customers are not aware of your product, they will not consider it when they next make a purchasing decision for the type of product you offer. Advertising puts your product into the consumer’s set of choices.

Brand Preference

Advertising can build a preference for your product over competitors’ offerings. Your advertising messages must reflect the information that customers feel is important when choosing a product. It must also stress the quality of your product. By advertising regularly, you can reinforce the brand messages so that your product becomes first choice when the consumer next makes a purchase.

Direct Sales

Use direct response advertising to sell products directly to customers. The advertisement includes details of the product and its price together with a telephone number or website address where customers can order the product.

Retail Development

Advertising details of retailers or distributors that stock your products builds sales by driving traffic to the outlets. The advertisements can provide information on retail outlets or promote special offers available at those outlets. This type of advertising can also help you promote your products to distributors and retailers.

Lead Generation

If you market products and services through a sales force, you can use advertisements to generate leads for the team to follow up. Include a response mechanism in the advertisement such as a reply coupon, telephone number or email address so that customers can register their details in return for an incentive offer. Examples of incentives include free copies of special reports for business customers or gifts for consumers.


When a prospect is selecting a supplier for a major purchase, company reputation is an important factor in the decision. Use advertising to build a positive perception of your company. Reputation or corporate advertising communicates messages about factors such as your company’s achievements, financial stability, market success and innovation record.

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Certain forms of media, particularly television and newspapers, are able to communicate to thousands or even millions of people at the same time. These mass media can have a very powerful influence on their audience, and often reflect the particular view-point of the media-owner.

Think about this for a second: whenever you want to hear your favorite song, watch your favorite show, or see the latest current events, where do you go? You more than likely turn on your television, radio, or computer. The source that the majority of the general public uses to get their news and information from is considered mass media.

Mass media means technology that is intended to reach a mass audience. It is the primary means of communication used to reach the vast majority of the general public. The most common platforms for mass media are newspapers, magazines, radio, television, and the Internet. The general public typically relies on the mass media to provide information regarding political issues, social issues, entertainment, and news in pop culture.

The mass media has evolved significantly over time. Have you ever wondered how the latest news and information was communicated in the past? Well, before there was the Internet, television, or the radio, there was the newspaper. The newspaper was the original platform for mass media. For a long period of time, the public relied on writers and journalists for the local newspapers to provide them with the latest news in current events.

Centuries later, in the 1890s, came the invention of the radio. The radio would soon supersede the newspaper as the most pertinent source for mass media. Families would gather around the radio and listen to their favorite radio station programs to hear the latest news regarding politics, social issues, and entertainment.

Later on down the line came the invention of the television. The television would soon replace the radio for the most effective platform to reach the general public. Today, the Internet is the most relevant form of mass media and has become a major tool for news outlets. Since the evolution of the Internet, the general public is now able to access those same news outlets in an instant with just a click of a mouse, instead of having to wait for scheduled programs.

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What is the amazing art of filming nature?

Nature photographers can catch the lightning tongue of the chameleon as it snatches an insect, or follow the growth of a plant through an entire season.

Time-lapse photography can make a plant appear to spring from the ground, flower and die in just a few seconds. A camera is fixed in position and programmed to take a series of pictures at intervals of minutes or hours. The film is then projected at the normal cine speed of 24 frames per second, speeding up the action thousands of times faster than reality.

It can take weeks to get a final minute’s worth of film, and the whole sequence can be ruined if the camera moves, or if anything obscures the object being photographed. Time-lapse photography needs scrupulously careful setting up and very reliable equipment.

At the other extreme is high-speed filming, which slows down action that is too fast for the human eye to see. The fastest modern cinecameras can take 11,000 frames a second, compared with the normal cine speed of 24 frames a second. The film moves past the lens at almost 200mph (320km/h), and the film spool is turning 33,000 times per minute. If anything goes wrong the camera is jammed with useless film in a split second.

Usually much slower speeds suffice: birds, bats and insects need 500 frames a second to show their wing beats and frogs leaping about the same, but it takes 1000 frames a second to capture the jump of the athletic flea. The highest speeds are needed for filming a drop of water splashing on a surface, a bullet penetrating glass, or a golfer hitting a drive.

 Filming animals in the wild is fraught with problems. Even with a zoom lens, just getting near enough to most animals is difficult. Before filming, photographers often watch the animals for some time, so they know their habits and can position themselves in a good vantage point downwind.

Photographers sometimes have to use tricks to fool their audience. Films showing animals such as foxes prowling at night are in fact often taken at dawn or dusk, when there s sufficient natural light. Then the film is doctored using filters to make it look as though it was much darker. Occasionally animals really are filmed at night, but even with image intensifiers that make them easier to see, the pictures are still not very clear.

Many films of ‘wild’ animals rely on using half-tame animals or even trained ones. Several photographers have looked after birds from instinctively follow them everywhere. By mounting a camera on a truck or on a fast boat, the photographers can take close-up film of the birds as they fly behind them.

Many animals are filmed in studios. Some animals cannot be trained, and it is not practical to film them in the wild. The surroundings of a trout spawning in a mountain stream, for example, can be convincingly imitated in a glass tank. Many of the most intimate scenes of small mammals giving birth and bringing up their young are achieved by building nests in the studio with clear windows which enable the animals’ private lives to be filmed. These nests are shallow, so that the animals remain within focusing range of the camera. When the film is edited and combined with other film taken outside, the viewer never suspects that some of the film has been shot in the studio.

Some of the toughest problems come in filming forms of life too small to see with the naked eye, like tiny bugs or insects. They have to be filmed through a microscope, but that reduces the light reaching the film. Extra lighting is needed but care has to be taken that the heat of the lights does not damage the tiny creatures being filmed.

Another problem with filming such small creatures is vibration. Even the tiniest movement between camera and object destroys the focus. This difficulty is overcome by an ‘optical bench’ which is a platform with the camera rigidly fixed at one end and the creature at the other. If a passing lorry causes vibrations, the camera and object vibrate as one, so the film remains perfectly in focus.

Some of the most dramatic film can be taken with an arrangement rather like an upside-down periscope. A typical project might be to film an insect, at its own eye level, as it wanders over the forest floor. It can be followed as it disappears beneath a leaf, or dives underwater. The periscope is suspended from a camera running on rails on an overhead gantry, so that it can be focused while it is rotated, tilted or moved backwards and forwards.


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How high-speed photographs are taken?

To freeze the beating of an insect’s wing needs a far shorter exposure than an ordinary camera can manage. Even at 1/1000th of a second the wings are a blur. Exposures ten or twenty times shorter are needed.

The British photographic pioneer W.H. Fox Talbot also pioneered high-speed photography as long ago as 1851. He attached a copy of The Times newspaper to a wheel, rotated it rapidly, and succeeded in taking a clear picture by illuminating the wheel very briefly with an intense spark of light which lasted only 1/100,000 of a second. If this technique is used in a blacked-out room, the camera shutter can be left open, and the film is exposed for an instant when the spark goes off.

The greatest difficulty is to arrange for the flash to go off when the subject is in exactly the right position. Often the best way is to make the subject – such as a bullet speeding through an apple – trigger the shutter or flash (or both) itself, by breaking a fine infrared beam or light beam that is focused on a reactive cell, for example.

A series of flashes may be used, with the film moving between each one. This technique was pioneered by an American, Harold Edgerton, in the 1930s. By using ten flashes a second and superimposing all the images on the same frame, he was able to show a drop of milk splashing into a bowl.


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Who was Sanchi Honnamma?

Sanchi Honnamma has the distinction of being one of the earliest women writers to emerge from a humble background at a time when established poets and noblemen were the only ones with accomplished written works to their name. Legend has it that Sanchi worked for the palace of King Chikadevaraya as a helper, and particularly specialised in rolling betel nuts in leaves for the royal family. Court poet Singaracharya spotted her love for words and taught her to read, write and create poetry. He is even said to have called her Sarasahityada Varadevata or ‘goddess of poetry’.

Honnamma was also a favourite of the queen Devajammanni, and grew to be well respected in the Mysore court. She wrote about the lives of common women and often about the pain they went through in life. She was a seemingly traditional thinker and upheld the values of her time. She was also very loyal to the kingdom.

“Haddibadeya Dharma” spoke on the virtues of women. And while this was a traditional form of literature and Honnamma by no means spoke up strongly for women’s rights, her position in history itself is an achievement, given her background.

Nothing else is known about Honnamma’s personal life.


“Garathiya Haadu” (Song of a Married Woman)

…Wasn’t it woman who raised them,

Then why do they always blame woman,

These boors…

In the womb they’re the same,

When they’re growing they’re the same,

Later the girl will take, with love, what’s given,

The boy will take his share by force.

In “Hadibadeya Dharna”, Honnamma is caught between her feelings and the values of her time. There is some veiled feminist angst but nothing is ever outspoken. Honnamma does make some remarkable points such as identifying that there is gender bias and that it isn’t a loss if a daughter is born to a family.


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What are the opportunities in water science and management?

When seen from depths of space, Earth appears as a blue sphere. This is because 70% of it made up of water. Despite this, today, the world is on the brink of a major water crisis on account of surging populations and climate change.

The situation is particularly grim in India. This June 19, Chennai city officials declared that ‘Day Zero’ – or the day when almost no water is left – had been reached. The city, teeming with millions, had finally run dry. Dried-out lake and rivers, schools and offices shut down on account of water paucity, and trains and tankers being used to transport water are suddenly becoming a new reality.

With the use of water growing faster than supply, people all over the world are appreciating the severity of the problem. And the field of water science and management is trying to met this challenge. Every year, countries and non-government organisations are coming together to hold summits and frame policies to tackle our imminent water woes.

So if you are interested in working for the cause of sustainable water management, the field of water science and management could be your calling.

How it works

Water science studies the molecules and properties of water to understand how it behaves. It seeks to answer questions such as ‘How does water climb up a tube?” and ‘Why does water take so long to heat?’ and with the world facing an imminent water crisis, the area of water science and conservation have come together in the field of water science and management. The main objective of this field is contributing to sustainable water management as well as exploring possibilities of making good water affordable and accessible.


After studying water science and management, you can obtain positions in a range of water-related jobs. You can find work opportunities at both policy as well as practice level in various agencies and bodies, both at Central and State levels. Water policy and management is one of the emerging areas in this field. You can work in government departments, non-governmental organisations and international agencies, or do further research. Some of the government departments working in this sector are Central Water Commission, central Soil and Material Research Station, Central Ground Water Board and the Flood Control Commissions.

Conservation is another area of interest. It looks at protecting and restoring damaged wetlands or freshwater sources. You can work with environment conservation agencies and think-tanks working to find solutions for water shortage.

Over the last few years, several start-ups have com up to stem the water-crisis in India. They are leveraging technology to help government, farmers and individuals save water.

What to study?

Depending on your interest, you can pick from a pool of diverse courses to study.



  • Shiv Nadar University, Uttar Pradesh: M.Sc in Water Science and Policy

  • The Energy and Resources Institute, Delhi: M.Sc Water Science and Governance and M.Tech Water Resource Engineering and Management

  • Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai: M.A./M.Sc in Water Policy and Governance

  • Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru: It has a centre for research in Water Science and Technology, offering M.Sc (Engg), Ph.D.


  • University of Oxford, the U.K.: Master of Philosophy in Water Science, Policy and Management

  • University of Southampton: M.Sc Water Resources Management

  • Van Hall Larenstein University, the Netherlands: B.Sc in Land and Water Management.


  • Hydrology

  • Water engineering

  • Water activism and advocacy

Required skills:

  • Interest in water conservation

  • Knowledge of water science

  • Awareness of the water problems facing the world

  • Research skills

  • Critical thinking

  • Observation and monitoring skills

  • Ability to come up with solutions


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What is the career in Mechatronics?

Watch any futuristic film and it is sure to be packed with self driving cars, drones and robots that can cater to your every need. Barring the robots taking over the world bit, what is shown in these movies is not as far fetched as you might think. Whether it is a robotic arm that can perform complex surgeries or rovers used for space exploration, slowly but steadily, robots are entering our lives. Wonder who builds them? Meet the mechatronics engineers. It’s their job to build robots that are used in different industries from agriculture and health care to automobiles and space exploration. So if you are interested in working with the latest technologies, mechatronics could be your calling.

What is mechatronics?

Mechatronics is a fusion of mechanical and electrical engineering with computer science. The term Mechatronics was first coined by the Japanese in relation to the development of the world’s first industrial robots. Mechatronics gives you a chance to work on the most up-to-date technologies, including artificial intelligence and modern product design. It prepares you for jobs in manufacturing and engineering sectors.

Required skills

  • Stay updated about the latest in technology

  • Expertise in robotics

  • Innovative thinking

  • Problem solving skills

  • Attention to detail

  • Research skills


Depending on your interest, you can work in Artificial Intelligence (AI) integration, automation, medical mechatronics, robotics and control systems. Medical mechatronics is a huge demand in radiology, surgery, ophthalmology and other branches of medicine. Similarly, AI is a central too many large technology companies such as Facebook and Google. Additionally, it is used in fields such as banking, aviation and manufacturing. You can work as project engineers / consultants in any of these sectors.

What to study?

Mechatronics is a relatively new branch of engineering. Many reputed engineering institutes in the country have begun offering Bachelor of Technology B.Tech and Master of Technology M.Tech degrees in Mechatronics engineering. Compared to Indian institutes, colleges abroad offer more courses in Mechatronics.



  • Manipal University Karnataka: B.Tech in Mechatronics Engineering

  • Vellore Institute of Technology Tamil Nadu: M.Tech in Mechatronics

  • SRM Institute of Science and Technology Chennai: B.Tech in Mechatronics

  • DY Patil University Pune: B.Tech in Mechatronics


  • Stanford University the U.S: Masters in Mechatronics

  • Liverpool University the U.K: Masters in Engineering (Robotic Systems and Mechatronics)


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What is the career in music therapy?

Whether it is the well-known concerts of Bach and Beethoven o the peppy tunes of a pop song, music can help us forget our woes. Music possesses the uncanny ability to bring people together, and device into our deepest thoughts, feelings and traumas. According to beloved children’s author Hans Christian Andersen, “Where words fail, music speaks.” Music therapists draw upon this healing power of music to support people with disabilities and illnesses. Music therapy, for example, might help a child with autism communicate with others. For a person with dementia, music can be a way for children. So if you want to use your musical abilities to help people, you can hit the right note as a music therapist.

How it works:

Music therapy is an emerging field backed by mounting scientific evidence. Music therapists work alongside paediatricians and nurses and other allied health professionals, including speech and language therapists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, psychologists and social workers.


Depending on your interest, you can work as a music therapist in different sectors. Primarily, music therapists work as consultants with hospitals and rehabilitation centres. Music therapy is used for children with physical, developmental and intellectual disabilities. Their treatment does not involve medication, instead it focuses on bringing about cognitive and behavioural changes. Similarly, schools for differently abled children may also consult music therapists to help children cope with school work. Many corporate houses ask music therapists to conduct workshops to relieve anxiety and stress of employees.

What to study:

To work as a music therapist, a Bachelor’s degree in music or psychology, special education, occupational therapy, social work or nursing is a prerequisite.


  • St Mira’s College, Pune: One-year, full-time, and two-year, part-time, Postgraduate Diploma in Clinical Music Therapy

  • Chennai School of Music Therapy: An online, foundation course to train aspirants in the basics of music therapy. Individuals with a Bachelor’s in Music or related fields can opt for the Postgraduate Diploma programme in Music Therapy

  • Nada, Centre for Music Therapy, Chennai and Delhi: Certificate course in Music Therapy – a distance-learning course offered in affiliation with the Directorate of Distance Learning

  • Mumbai Educational Trust’s Institute of Alternative Careers, Mumbai: Certificate in Music Therapy – a six-month, part-time course.

  • S.H. Centre for Music Therapy and Mental Health Amritsar: A distance-education course in Music Therapy. The centre is affiliated to Bharat Sevak Samaj, an agency promoted by the Government of India.

Required skills:

  • A desire to help people empower themselves

  • Empathy, patience and ability to listen

  • A love for music

  • Communication skills

  • Imagination and creativity

  • Openness to new ideas


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How can I make her understand that I need my space?

My mom keeps sending me friend/follow requests on social media, but I do not want to let her into my virtual space. Not that I have anything to hide, but I value my space with my friends. I share a very good relationship with my mother, which is why it bothers me to say no all the time. How can I make her understand that I need my space? I’m a Class XI student.

I appreciate your openness and your concern for your mother. It is fine to have some privacy and space for yourself. What is very important is to gain your parents;’ confidence. They are our well-wishers, but sometimes they are over-concerned, leading to conflicts. Each person must give space to others. An open conversation is the best way to gain mutual respect. Give your mother the confidence that you will share anything important with her and that you will not cross boundaries. Understand her concern and act accordingly.


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I do not have many friends on social media

I’m in Class X. I have a problem. I do not have many friends on social media, but my friends do. I am very selective about adding friends because I do not want to land in problems. But still I get a complex when I see the number of likes and comments some of my friends attract when they post something. How can I handle this?

It is very essential to be very clear on the kind of friends you want to have on social media. It is not okay to get carried away by what your friends are doing. You must be clear about your boundaries. It is very natural to feel upset or confused when your friends seem to be getting a lot of attention on social media. Remember, this is a passing phase. Be clear about why you have set certain rules. It is not healthy to compare yourself with others. You have mentioned that you do not want to land in problems and it is your decision to restrict yourself. Do not feel bad about it and lose focus. For many, social media is addictive and it is very important for you to not get there. It is not good to practise unhealthy habits simply because others are doing it.


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He loves to show off

I have a friend who keeps posting false things about himself on social media, just to make an impression. I have told him many times not to do so. But he loves to show off. How can I make him realise it is not good and that it is important to be true? I’m in Class XI.

Social media can impact one’s life in many ways. Many youngsters create a false image on social media to gain attention. This is not healthy, and will lead to problems. I appreciate your concern for your friend and your interest to help him. In spite of your repeatedly telling him about the ill-effects of his behaviour, your friend does not seem to understand your concerns. Could you talk to a trusted adult and inform them? Also give him the confidence that you will help him overcome any problems, within your ability. But understand that you too have your limitations and cannot take responsibility for his actions. Explore why he seeks attention, and create awareness about the risks involved.


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